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Clergy and Revolution

The Black Robed Regiment

by David Barton

 The Black Robed Regiment was the name that the Britishplaced on the courageous and patriotic American clergy during the Founding Era(a backhanded reference to the black robes they wore). [1] Significantly,the British blamed the Black Regiment for American Independence, [2] andrightfully so, for modern historians have documented that:

There is not a right asserted in the Declaration ofIndependence which had not been discussed by the New England clergy before1763. [3]

It is strange to today's generation to think that the rightslisted in the Declaration of Independence were nothing more than a listing ofsermon topics that had been preached from the pulpit in the two decades leadingup to the American Revolution, but such was the case.

 

But it was not just the British who saw the American pulpitas largely responsible for American independence and government, our own leadersagreed. For example, John Adams rejoiced that "the pulpits havethundered" [4] andspecifically identified several ministers as being among the "charactersthe most conspicuous, the most ardent, and influential" in the"awakening and a revival of American principles and feelings" thatled to American independence. [5]

 

Across subsequent generations, the great and positiveinfluence of the Revolutionary clergy was faithfully reported. For example:

As a body of men, the clergy were pre-eminent in theirattachment to liberty. The pulpits of the land rang with the notes of freedom. [6] TheAmerican Quarterly Register [MAGAZINE], 1833

If Christian ministers had not preached and prayed, theremight have been no revolution as yet - or had it broken out, it might have beencrushed. [7]BibliothecaSacra [BRITISH PERIODICAL], 1856

The ministers of the Revolution were, like their Puritanpredecessors, bold and fearless in the cause of their country. No class of mencontributed more to carry forward the Revolution and to achieve our independencethan did the ministers. . . . [B]y their prayers, patriotic sermons, andservices [they] rendered the highest assistance to the civil government, thearmy, and the country. [8] B.F. Morris, HISTORIAN, 1864

The Constitutional Convention and the written Constitutionwere the children of the pulpit. [9] AliceBaldwin, HISTORIAN, 1918

Had ministers been the only spokesman of the rebellion - hadJefferson, the Adamses, and [James] Otis never appeared in print - thepolitical thought of the Revolution would have followed almost exactly the sameline. . . . In the sermons of the patriot ministers . . . we find expressedevery possibly refinement of the reigning political faith. [10] Clinton Rossiter, HISTORIAN,1953

The American clergy were faithful exponents of the fullnessof God's Word, applying its principles to every aspect of life, thus shapingAmerica's institutes and culture. They were also at the forefront ofproclaiming liberty, resisting tyranny, and opposing any encroachments onGod-given rights and freedoms. In 1898, Methodist bishop and church historianCharles Galloway rightly observed of these ministers:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve and strong hand andunblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reeds shaken by the wind,not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], but heroes of hardihood andlofty courage. . . . And such were the sons of the mighty who responded to theDivine call. [11]

But the ministers during the Revolutionary period were notnecessarily unique; they were simply continuing what ministers had been doingto shape American government and culture in the century and a half precedingthe Revolution.

 

For example, the early settlers who arrived in Virginiabeginning in 1606 included ministers such as the Revs. Robert Hunt, RichardBurke, William Mease, Alexander Whitaker, William Wickham, and others. In 1619they helped form America's first representative government: the Virginia Houseof Burgesses, with its members elected from among the people. [12] Thatlegislature met in the Jamestown church and was opened with prayer by the Rev.Mr. Bucke; the elected legislators then sat in the church choir loft to conductlegislative business. [13] AsBishop Galloway later observed:

[T]he first movement toward democracy in America wasinaugurated in the house of God and with the blessing of the minister of God. [14]

In 1620, the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts to establishtheir colony. Their pastor, John Robinson, charged them to elect civil leaderswho would not only seek the "common good" but who would alsoeliminate special privileges and status between governors and the governed [15] -a radical departure from the practice in the rest of the world at that time.The Pilgrims eagerly took that message to heart, organizing a representativegovernment and holding annual elections. [16] By1636, they had also enacted a citizens' Bill of Rights - America's first. [17]

 

In 1630, the Puritans arrived and founded the MassachusettsBay Colony, and under the leadership of their ministers, they, too, establishedrepresentative government with annual elections. [18] By1641, they also had established a Bill of Rights (the "Body ofLiberties")[19] -a document of individual rights drafted by the Rev. Nathaniel Ward. [20]

 

In 1636, the Rev. Roger Williams established the RhodeIsland Colony and its representative form of government, [21] explainingthat "[t]he sovereign, original, and foundation of civil power lies in thepeople." [22]

 

The same year, the Rev. Thomas Hooker (along with the Revs.Samuel Stone, John Davenport, and Theophilus Eaton) founded Connecticut. [23] Theynot only established an elective form of government [24] butin a 1638 sermon based on Deuteronomy 1:13 and Exodus 18:21, the Rev. Hookerexplained the three Biblical principles that had guided the plan of governmentin Connecticut:

 

I. [T]he choice of public magistrates belongs unto thepeople by God's own allowance.

II. The privilege of election . . . belongs to the people .. .

III. They who have power to appoint officers and magistrates[i.e., the people], it is in their power also to set the bounds and limitationsof the power and place. [25]

 

From the Rev. Hooker's teachings and leadership sprang the"Fundamental Orders of Connecticut" - America's first writtenconstitution (and the direct antecedent of the federal Constitution). [26] Butwhile Connecticut produced America's first written constitution, it definitelyhad not produced America's first written document of governance, for suchwritten documents had been the norm for every colony founded by Bible-mindedChristians. After all, this was the Scriptural model: God had given Moses afixed written law to govern that nation - a pattern that recurred throughoutthe Scriptures (c.f., Deuteronomy 17:18-20, 31:24, II Chronicles 34:15-21,etc.). As renowned Cornell University professor Clinton Rossiter affirmed:

[T]he Bible gave a healthy spur to the belief in a written constitution.The Mosaic Code, too, was a higher law that men could live by - and appeal to -against the decrees and whims of ordinary men. [27] (emphasisadded)

Written documents of governance placed direct limitations ongovernment and gave citizens maximum protection against the whims of selfishleaders. This practice of providing written documents had been the practice ofAmerican ministers before the Rev. Hooker's constitution of 1638 and continued longafter.

 

For example, in 1676, New Jersey was chartered and thendivided into two religious sub-colonies: Puritan East Jersey and Quaker WestJersey; each had representative government with annual elections. [28] Thegoverning document for West Jersey was written by Christian minister WilliamPenn. It declared:

We lay a foundation for after ages to understand theirliberty . . . that they may not be brought in bondage but by their own consent,for we put the power in the people. [29]

Under Penn's document . . .

Legislation was vested in a single assembly elected by allthe inhabitants; the elections were to be by secret ballot; the principle of"No taxation without representation" was clearly asserted; freedom ofconscience, trial by jury, and immunity from arrest without warrant wereguaranteed. [30]

In 1681, Penn wrote the Frame of Government forPennsylvania. It, too, established annual elections and provided numerousguarantees for citizen rights. [31]



There are many additional examples, but it is indisputablethat  ministers played a critical role in instituting and securing many ofAmerica's most significant civil rights and freedoms. As Founding Father NoahWebster affirmed:

The learned clergy . . . had great influence in founding thefirst genuine republican governments ever formed and which, with all the faultsand defects of the men and their laws, were the best republican governments onearth. At this moment, the people of this country are indebted chiefly to theirinstitutions for the rights and privileges which are enjoyed. [32]

Daniel Webster (the great "Defender of theConstitution") agreed:

[T]o the free and universal reading of the Bible in that agemen were much indebted for right views of civil liberty. [33]

Because Christian ministers established in America freedomsand opportunities not generally available even in the mother country of GreatBritain, they were also at the forefront of resisting encroachments on thecivil and religious liberties that they had helped secure.

 

For example, when crown-appointed Governor Edmund Androstried to seize the charters of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts,revoke their representative governments, and force the establishment of theBritish Anglican Church upon them, opposition to Andros' plan was led by theRevs. Samuel Willard, Increase Mather, and especially the Rev. John Wise. [34] TheRev. Wise was even imprisoned by Andros for his resistance but he remained anunflinching voice for freedom, penning in 1710 and 1717 two works forcefullyasserting that democracy was God's ordained government in both Church andState, [35] thuscausing historians to title him "The Founder of American Democracy." [36]

 

And when Governor Berkley refused to recognize Virginia'sself-government, Quaker minister William Edmundson and the Rev. Thomas Harrisonled the opposition. [37] WhenGovernor Thomas Hutchinson ignored the elected Massachusetts legislature, theRev. Dr. Samuel Cooper led the opposition. [38] Anda similar pattern was followed when Governor William Burnet dissolved the NewHampshire legislature, Governor Botetourt disbanded the Virginia House ofBurgesses, Governor James Wright disbanded the Georgia Assembly, etc.

 

And because American preachers consistently opposedencroachments on civil and religious liberties, when the British imposed onAmericans the 1765 Stamp Act (an early harbinger of the rupture between the twonations soon to follow), at the vanguard of the opposition to that act were theRevs. Andrew Eliot, Charles Chauncey, Samuel Cooper, Jonathan Mayhew, andGeorge Whitefield [39]



(Whitefield even accompanied Benjamin Franklin to Parliamentto protest the Act and assert colonial rights). [40] Infact, one of the reasons that American resistance to the Stamp Act became sowidespread was because the "clergy fanned the fire of resistance to theStamp Act into a strong flame." [41]



Five years later in 1770 when the British opened fire ontheir own citizens in the famous "Boston Massacre," ministers againstepped to the forefront, boldly denouncing that abuse of power. A number ofsermons were preached on the subject, including by the Revs. John Lathrop,Charles Chauncey, and Samuel Cooke; [42] theMassachusetts House of Representatives even ordered that Rev. Cooke's sermon beprinted and distributed. [43]



As tensions with the British continued to grow, ministerssuch as the Rev. George Whitefield [44] andthe Rev. Timothy Dwight [45] becamesome of the earliest leaders to advocate America's separation from GreatBritain.

 

There are many additional examples, but the historicalrecords respecting the leadership of the clergy were so clear that in 1851,distinguished historian Benson Lossing concluded:

[T]he Puritan preachers also promulgated the doctrine ofcivil liberty - that the sovereign was amenable to the tribunal of publicopinion and ought to conform in practice to the expressed will of the majorityof the people. By degrees their pulpits became the tribunes of the commonpeople; and . . . on all occasions, the Puritan ministers were the boldasserters of that freedom which the American Revolution established. [46] (emphasisadded)

However, Christian ministers did not just teach theprinciples that led to independence, they also participated on the battlefieldto secure that independence. One of the numerous examples is the Rev. JonasClark.

 

When Paul Revere set off on his famous ride, it was to thehome of the Rev. Clark in Lexington that he rode. Patriot leaders John Hancockand Samuel Adams were lodging (as they often did) with the Rev. Clark. Afterlearning of the approaching British forces, Hancock and Adams turned to PastorClark and inquired of him whether the people were ready to fight. Clarkunhesitatingly replied, "I have trained them for this very hour!" [47]Whenthe original alarm sounded in Lexington to warn of the oncoming British menace,citizens gathered at the town green, and according to early historian JoelHeadley:

There they found their pastor the [Rev. Clark] who hadarrived before them. The roll was called and a hundred and fifty answered totheir names . . . . The church, the pastor, and his congregation thus standingtogether in the dim light [awaiting the Redcoats], while the stars lookedtranquilly down from the sky above them. [48]

The British did not appear at that first alarm, and thepeople returned home. At the subsequent alarm, they reassembled, and once thesound of the battle subsided, some eighteen Americans lay on Lexington Green;seven were dead - all from the Rev. Clark's church. [49] Headleytherefore concluded, "The teachings of the pulpit of Lexington caused thefirst blow to be struck for American Independence," [50] andhistorian James Adams added that "the patriotic preaching of the ReverendJonas Clark primed those guns." [51]



When the British troops left Lexington, they fought atConcord Bridge and then headed back to Boston, encountering increasing Americanresistance on their return. Significantly, many who awaited the British alongthe road were local pastors (such as the Rev. Phillips Payson [52] andthe Rev. Benjamin Balch [53])who had heard of the unprovoked British attack on the Americans, taken up theirown arms, and then rallied their congregations to meet the returning British.As word of the attack spread wider, pastors from other areas also responded.

 

For example, when word reached Vermont, the Rev. David Averypromptly gathered twenty men and marched toward Boston, recruiting additionaltroops along the way, [54] andthe Rev. Stephen Farrar of New Hampshire led 97 of his parishioners to Boston. [55] Theranks of resistance to the British swelled through the efforts of Christianministers who "were far more effective than army recruiters in rounding upcitizen-soldiers." [56]

 

Weeks later when the Americans fought the British at BunkerHill, American ministers again delved headlong into the fray. For example, whenthe Rev. David Grosvenor heard that the battle had commenced, he left from hispulpit - rifle in hand - and promptly marched to the scene of action, [57] asdid the Rev. Jonathan French. [58]

 

This pattern was common through the Revolution - as when theRev. Thomas Reed marched to the defense of Philadelphia against British GeneralHowe; [59] theRev. John Steele led American forces in attacking the British; [60] theRev. Isaac Lewis helped lead the resistance to the British landing at Norwalk,Connecticut; [61] theRev. Joseph Willard raised two full companies and then marched with them tobattle; [62] theRev. James Latta, when many of his parishioners were drafted, joined with themas a common soldier; [63] andthe Rev. William Graham joined the military as a rifleman in order to encourageothers in his parish to do the same [64].Furthermore:

Of Rev. John Craighead it is said that "he fought andpreached alternately." Rev. Dr. Cooper was captain of a military company.Rev. John Blair Smith, president of Hampden-Sidney College, was captain of acompany that rallied to support the retreating Americans after the battle ofCowpens. Rev. James Hall commanded a company that armed against Cornwallis.Rev. William Graham rallied his own neighbors to dispute the passage ofRockfish Gap with Tarleton and his British dragoons. [65]

There are many additional examples. No wonder the Britishdubbed the patriotic American clergy the "Black Regiment." [66] Butbecause of their strong leadership, ministers were often targeted by theBritish. As Headley confirms:

[T]here was a class of clergymen and chaplains in theRevolution whom the British, when they once laid hands on them, treated withthe most barbarous severity. Dreading them for the influence they wielded andhating them for the obstinacy, courage, and enthusiasm they infused into therebels, they violated all the usages of war among civilized nations in order toinflict punishment upon them. [67]

Among these was the Rev. Naphtali Daggett, President ofYale. When the British approached New Haven to enter private homes anddesecrate property and belongings, Daggett offered stiff and at times almostsingle-handed resistance to the British invasion, standing alone on a hillside,repeatedly firing his rifle down at the hundreds of British troops below.Eventually captured, over a period of several hours the British stabbed andpricked Daggett multiple times with their bayonets. Local townspeople lobbiedthe British and eventually secured the release of the preacher, but Daggett neverrecovered from those wounds, which eventually caused his death. [68] Whenthe Rev. James Caldwell offered similar resistance in New Jersey, the Britishburned his church and he and his family were murdered. [69]

 

The British abused, killed, or imprisoned many otherclergymen, [70] whooften suffered harsher treatment and more severe penalties than did ordinaryimprisoned soldiers. [71]Butthe British targeted not just ministers but also their churches. As a result,of the nineteen church buildings in New York City, ten were destroyed by theBritish, [72] andmost of the churches in Virginia suffered the same fate. [73] Thispattern was repeated throughout many other parts of the country.

 

Truly, Christian ministers provided courageous leadershipthroughout the Revolution, and as briefly noted earlier, they had also beenlargely responsible for laying its intellectual foundation. To understand moreof their influence, consider the Rev. John Wise.

 

As early as 1687, the Rev. Wise was already teaching that"taxation without representation is tyranny," [74] the"consent of the governed" was the foundation of government, [75] andthat "every man must be acknowledged equal to every man." [76] In1772 with the Revolution on the horizon, two of Wise's works were reprinted byleading patriots and the Sons of Liberty to refresh America's understanding ofthe core Biblical principles of government. [77] (Thefirst printing sold so fast that a quick second reprint was quickly issued. [78])Significantly, many of the specific points made by Wise in that worksubsequently appeared four years later in the very language of the Declarationof Independence. As historian Benjamin Morris affirmed in 1864:

[S]ome of the most glittering sentences in the immortalDeclaration of Independence are almost literal quotations from this [1772reprinted] essay of John Wise. . . . It was used as a political text-book inthe great struggle for freedom. [79]

And decades later when President Calvin Coolidge delivered a1926 speech in Philadelphia on the 150th anniversary of the Declaration ofIndependence, he similarly acknowledged:

The thoughts [in the Declaration] can very largely be tracedback to what John Wise was writing in 1710. [80]

It was Christian ministers such as John Wise (and scoreslike him) who, through their writings and countless sermons (such as theirElection Sermons and other sermons on the Biblical principles of government)laid the intellectual basis for American Independence.

Christian clergy largely defined America's unique politicaltheory and even defended it in military combat, but they were also leaders inthe national legislative councils in order to help implement what they hadconceived and birthed. For example, the Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon was a memberof the Continental Congress who served during the Revolution on the Board ofWar as well as on over 100 congressional committees. [81]Otherministers who served in the Continental Congress included the Revs. JosephMontgomery, Hugh Williamson, John Zubly, and more.

 

Numerous ministers also served in state legislatures - suchas the Rev. Jacob Green of New Jersey, who helped set aside the Britishgovernment in that state and was made chairman of the committee that draftedthe state's original constitution in 1776; [82] theRev. Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, who helped draft Pennsylvania's 1776constitution; [83]theRev. Samuel Stillman, who helped draft Massachusetts' 1780 constitution; [84] etc.

 

When hostilities ceased at the end of the Revolution,Christian ministers led in the movement for a federal constitution. Forexample, the Revs. Jeremy Belknap, Samuel Stanhope Smith, John Witherspoon, andJames Manning began pointing out the defects of the Articles of Confederation, [85] andwhen the Constitution was finally complete and submitted to the states forratification, nearly four dozen clergymen were elected as ratifying delegates, [86] manyof whom played key roles in securing its adoption in their respective states.

 

Following the adoption of the new federal Constitution,ministers were highly active in celebrating its ratification. For example, ofthe parade in Philadelphia, signer of the Declaration Benjamin Rush happilyreported:

The clergy formed a very agreeable part of the procession.They manifested by their attendance their sense of the connection betweenreligion and good government. They. . . . marched arm in arm with each other toexemplify the Union. [87]

When the first federal Congress under the new Constitutionconvened, several ministers were Members, including the Revs. FrederickAugustus and John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, Abiel Foster, Benjamin Contee,Abraham Baldwin, and Paine Wingate.

 

Ministers were intimately involved in every aspect ofintroducing, defining, and securing America's civil and religious liberties. A1789 Washington, D. C., newspaper therefore proudly reported:

[O]ur truly patriotic clergy boldly and zealously steppedforth and bravely stood our distinguished sentinels to watch and warn usagainst approaching danger; they wisely saw that our religious and civilliberties were inseparably connected and therefore warmly excited and animatedthe people resolutely to oppose and repel every hostile invader. . . . [M]aythe virtue, zeal and patriotism of our clergy be ever particularly remembered. [88]

Incidentally, besides their contributions to government andcivil and religious liberty, the Black Robed Regiment was also largelyresponsible for education in America. Ministers, understanding that only aliterate people well versed in the teachings of the Bible could sustain freeand enlightened government, therefore established an education system thatwould teach and preserve the religious principles so indispensable to the civiland religious liberties they forcefully advocated.

 

Consequently, in 1635 the Puritans established America'sfirst public school, [89] andin 1647 passed America' first public education law ("The Old Deluder SatanAct" [90]).And Harvard University was founded through the direction of Puritan ministerJohn Harvard;[91] Yalewas founded by ten congregational ministers; [92] Princetonby Presbyterian ministers Jonathan Dickinson, John Pierson, and EbenezerPemberton; [93] Williamand Mary by Episcopal minister James Blair; [94] Dartmouthby Congregational minister Eleazar Wheelock; [95] etc.

 

This trend of Gospel ministers founding and leading Americaneducational institutions continued for the next two-and-a-half centuries, andby 1860, ninety-one percent of all college presidents were ministers of theGospel - as were more than a third of all university faculty members. [96] Ofthe 246 colleges founded by the close of that year, only seventeen were notaffiliated with some denomination; [97] andby 1884, eighty-three percent of America's 370 colleges still remaineddenominational colleges. [98] AsFounding Father Noah Webster (the "Schoolmaster to America")affirmed, "to them [the clergy] is popular education in this country moreindebted than to any other class of men."[99]

 

In short, history demonstrates that America's electivegovernments, her educational system, and many other positive aspects ofAmerican life and culture were the product of Biblical-thinking Christianclergy and leaders. Today, however, as the influence of the clergy has waned,many of these institutions have come under unprecedented attack and many of ourtraditional freedoms have been significantly eroded. It is time for America'sclergy to understand and reclaim the important position of influence they havebeen given. As the Rev. Charles Finney - a leader of the Second Great Awakening- reminded ministers in his day:

Brethren, our preaching will bear its legitimate fruits. Ifimmorality prevails in the land, the fault is ours in a great degree. If thereis a decay of conscience, the pulpit is responsible for it. If the public presslacks moral discrimination, the pulpit is responsible for it. If the church isdegenerate and worldly, the pulpit is responsible for it. If the world losesits interest in religion, the pulpit is responsible for it. If Satan rules inour halls of legislation, the pulpit is responsible for it. If our politicsbecome so corrupt that the very foundations of our government are ready to fallaway, the pulpit is responsible for it. Let us not ignore this fact, my dearbrethren; but let us lay it to heart, and be thoroughly awake to ourresponsibility in respect to the morals of this nation.[100]

America once again needs the type of courageous ministersdescribed by Bishop Galloway:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve and strong hand andunblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reeds shaken by the wind,not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], but heroes of hardihood andlofty courage. . . .And such were the sons of the mighty who responded to the Divinecall. [101]

It is time to reinvigorate the Black Robed Regiment!

 


[1] Boston Gazette, December 7, 1772,article by "Israelite," and Boston Weekly Newsletter, January11, 1776, article by Peter Oliver, British official. See also PeterOliver, Peter Oliver's Origin & Progress of the American Rebellion, DouglasAdair and John A. Schutz, editors (San Marino California: The HuntingtonLibrary, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45; Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, TheNew England Clergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar,1958), pp. 98, 155.

[2] Alpheus Packard, "Nationality," BibliothecaSacra and American Biblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper,1856), Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin FranklinMorris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[3] Alice M. Baldwin, The New EnglandClergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p.170.

[4] John Adams, The Works of John Adams,Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown,1851), Vol. III, p. 476, "The Earl of Clarendon to William Pym,"January 20, 1766.

[5] John Adams, The Works of JohnAdams, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown and Company,1850), Vol. X, p. 284, to Hezekiah Niles, February 13, 1818. See also JohnAdams, The Works of John  Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor(Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1856), Vol. X, pp. 271-272, letter to WilliamWirt, January 5, 1818.

[6] "History of Revivals of Religion,From the Settlement of the Country to the Present Time," The AmericanQuarterly Register,(Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1833) Vol. 5, p. 217. Seealso Benjamin Franklin Morris, Christian Life and Character of theCivil Institutions of the United States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs,1864), pp. 334-335.

[7] Alpheus Packard, "Nationality," BibliothecaSacra and American Biblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper,1856), Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin FranklinMorris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[8] Benjamin Franklin Morris, ChristianLife and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States (Philadelphia:George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[9] Alice M. Baldwin, The New EnglandClergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar PublishingCo., 1958), p. 134.

[10] Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of theRepublic (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1953), pp. 328-329.

[11] Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), p. 77.

[12] Colonial National Historical Park,"The First Legislative Assembly at Jamestown, Virginia," NationalPark Service (at: http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/1stASSLY.html)(accessed on September 24, 2010).

[13] Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), pp. 1131-114; John Fiske, Civil Government in theUnited States Considered with some Reference to Its Origins(Boston: Houghton,Mifflin & Co., 1890), p. 146.

[14] Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), p. 114.

[15] Old South Leaflets, (Boston:Directors of the Old South Work), p. 372, "Words of John Robinson(1620)"; "John Robinson's Farewell Letter to the Pilgrims, July 22,1620," Pilgrim Hall Museum,  July 22, 1620 (at:http://www.pilgrimhall.org/RobinsonLetter.htm).

[16] "Plymouth Colony LegalStructure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project (at:http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html) (accessed onSeptember 24, 2010). See also Robert Baird, Religion in America (NewYork: Harper & Brothers, 1845), p. 51.

[17] "Plymouth Colony LegalStructure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project (at:http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html) (accessed onSeptember 24, 2010).

[18] Henry William Elson, History ofthe United States of America, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1904), Ch. IV,pp. 103-111.See also "Massachusetts Bay," History of theUSA (at: http://www.usahistory.info/New-England/Massachusetts.html)(accessed on September 30, 2010).

[19] "Plymouth Colony LegalStructure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project (at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html)(accessed on September 30, 2010).

[20] George Bancroft, History of theUnited States from the Discovery of the American Continent (Boston:Little, Brown & Co., 1858), Vol. I, p. 416-417; Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), pp. 124-125; Old South Leaflets, (Boston:Directors of the Old South Work), p. 261-280, "The Body of Liberties: TheLiberties of the Massachusetts Colonie in New England, 1641."

[21] "Charter of Rhode Island andProvidence Plantations," The Avalon Project, July 15, 1663 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp).

[22] Alice M. Baldwin, The New EnglandClergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p.27 quoting Roger Williams' The Bloody Tenet, p. 137, quoted by IsaacBackus, Church History of New England, I. 62 of 1839.

[23] "Connecticut to 1763," Connecticut'sHeritage Gateway (at:http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/ctto1763/overviewctto1763.htm) (accessedon September 30, 2010).

[24] The Federal and StateConstitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws, Francis NewtonThorpe, editor (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909), Vol. 1, p. 534,"Charter of Connecticut-1662."

[25] Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of theRepublic (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1953), p. 171.

[26] John Fiske, The Beginnings of NewEngland (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1898), pp. 127-128.

[27] Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of theRepublic (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1953), p. 32. See also,J. M. Mathews, The Bible and Civil Government, in a Course of Lectures (NewYork: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1851), pp. 67-68.

[28] "Province of West New Jersey inAmerica," Art. I, The Avalon Project, November 25, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj08.asp); "The FundamentalConstitutions for the Province of East New Jersey in America, Anno Domini1683," Art. II-III, The Avalon Project, 1683 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj10.asp). See also "ColonialAmerica," United States History (at:http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h591.html) (accessed on September 23, 2010).

[29] Ernest Sutherland Bates, AmericanFaith (New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[30] Ernest Sutherland Bates, AmericanFaith (New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[31] "Charter for the Province ofPennsylvannia-1681," The Avalon Project, February 28, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/pa01.asp).

[32] Noah Webster, Letters of NoahWebster, Harry R. Warfel, editor (New York: Library Publishers, 1953, p. 455,letter to David McClure, October 25, 1836.

[33] Daniel Webster, Address Deliveredat Bunker Hill, June 17, 1843, on the Completion of the Monument (Boston:T. R. Marvin, 1843), p. 31.

[34] John Fiske, The Beginnings of NewEngland (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1898), pp.267-272.

[35] John Wise, A Vindication of theGovernment of New- England Churches (Boston: John Boyles, 1772), p. 45.

[36] "Top Ipswich Patriots byThomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. Eunice Whitney Farley Felten," LordFamily Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[37] John Fiske, Old Virginia and HerNeighbors (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1901), Vol. II, p. 57,and Vol. I, pp. 306, 311.

[38] Dictionary of American Biography (NewYork: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1930), s.v. "Samuel Cooper."

[39] Alice M. Baldwin, The New EnglandClergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p.90; Stephen Mansfield, Forgotten Founding Father: The Heroic Legacy ofGeorge Whitefield (Cumberland House, 2001), p. 112.

[40] Stephen Mansfield, ForgottenFounding Father: The Heroic Legacy of George Whitefield (Cumberland House,2001), p. 112.

[41] Alice M. Baldwin, The Clergy ofConnecticut in Revolutionary Days (Yale University Press, 1936), p. 30.

[42] Claude H. Van Tyne, The Causes ofthe War of Independence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), p. 362.

[43] John Wingate Thornton, Pulpit ofthe American Revolution (Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 1860), pp. 147-148. Seealso Claude H. Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), p. 362.

[44] George Bancroft, History of theUnited States from the Discovery of the American Continent (Boston:Little, Brown & Co., 1858), Vol. V, p. 193.

[45] B.F. Morris, Christian Life andCharacter of the Civil Institutions of the United States, Developed in theOfficial and Historical Annals of the Republic (Philadelphia: George W.Childs, 1864), pp. 367-368.

[46] Benjamin Lossing, PictorialFieldbook of the Revolution (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), Vol.I, p. 440.

[47] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 34. Only source we canlocate is Cole's.

[48] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 79.

[49] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 79-82

[50] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Scribner, 1864), p. 82.

[51] James L. Adams, Yankee DoodleWent to Church: The Righteous Revolution of 1776 (Old Tappan, NJ: FlemingH. Revell Company, 1989), p. 22.

[52] Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (NewYork: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[53] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[54] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[55] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[56] James L. Adams, Yankee DoodleWent to Church (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1989), p. 153.

[57] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[58] Franklin Cole, They PreachedLiberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[59] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 68.

[60] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69; Appleton'sCyclopedia of American Biography, s.v. "John Steele."

[61] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 71-72.

[62] Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (NewYork: Fleming H. Revell, 1941), p. 36.

[63] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 72.

[64] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69.

[65] Daniel Dorchester, Christianityin the United States from the First Settlement Down to the Present Time (NewYork: Phillips & Hunt, 1888), p. 265.

[66] Boston Gazette, December 7, 1772,article by "Israelite," and Boston Weekly Newsletter, January11, 1776, article by Peter Oliver, British official. See also PeterOliver, Peter Oliver's Origin & Progress of the American Rebellion, DouglasAdair and John A. Schutz, editors (San Marino California: The HuntingtonLibrary, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45; Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, TheNew England Clergy and the American Revolution (New York: Frederick Ungar,1958), pp. 98, 155.

[67] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[68] William Buell Sprague, Annals ofthe American Pulpit: Trinitarian Congregation, (New York: Robert Carter &Brothers, 1857), p. 482.

[69] B.F. Morris, Christian Life andCharacter of the Civil Institutions of the United States, Developed in theOfficial and Historical Annals of the Republic (Philadelphia: George W.Childs, 1864) p. 350.

[70] Daniel Dorchester, Christianityin the United States from the First Settlement Down to the Present Time (NewYork: Phillips & Hunt, 1888), p. 265.

[71] J. T. Headley, The Chaplains andClergy of the Revolution (New York: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[72] Daniel Dorchester, Christianityin the United States from the First Settlement Down to the Present Time (NewYork: Phillips & Hunt, 1888), p. 266.

[73] Daniel Dorchester, Christianityin the United States from the First Settlement Down to the Present Time (NewYork: Phillips & Hunt, 1888), p. 267.

[74] Linda Stewart, "The OtherCape," American Heritage (at:http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2001/2/2001_2_50.shtml)(accessed on September 24, 2010).

[75] Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of theRepublic (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1953), p. 219.

[76] "Top Ipswich Patriots byThomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. Eunice Whitney Farley Felten," LordFamily Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[77] "Top Ipswich Patriots byThomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. Eunice Whitney Farley Felten," LordFamily Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[78] Claude H. Van Tyne, The Causes ofthe War of Independence (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company,1922), Vol. I, p. 357.

[79] John Wise, A Vindication of theGovernment of New England Churches: and the Churches' Quarrel Espoused (Boston:Congregational Board of Publication, 1860), pp. xx-xxi, "IntroductoryRemarks" by Rev. J. S. Clark. See also B.F. Morris, ChristianLife and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States, Developed inthe Official and Historical Annals of the Republic(Philadelphia: George W.Childs, 1864), p. 341

[80] Calvin Coolidge, "Speech on theOne Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence," TeachingAmerican History, July 5, 1926 (at:http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=41).

[81] Political Sermons of the AmericanFounding Era: 1730-1805, Ellis Sandoz, editor (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund:1998), Vol. 1, p. 530, from Sermons 17 on John Witherspoon intro.

[82] B.F. Morris, Christian Life andCharacter of the Civil Institutions of the United States, Developed in theOfficial and Historical Annals of the Republic (Philadelphia: George W. Childs,1864), p. 366.

[83] William Warren Sweet, The Storyof Religion in America (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1950),p. 182.

[84] Frank Moore, Patriot Preachers ofthe American Revolution (Boston: Gould and Lincoln: 1860), p. 260.

[85] James Hutchinson Smylie, AmericanClergymen and the Constitution of the United States of America (NewJersey: Princeton Theological Seminary, doctoral dissertation 1958), pp.127-129, 139, 143.

[86] John Eidsmoe, Christianity andthe Constitution (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1987), p. 352, n. 15.

[87] Benjamin Rush, Letters of BenjaminRush, L. H. Butterfield, editor (Princeton: American PhilosophicalSociety, 1951), Vol. I, p. 474, letter to Elias Boudinot, "Observations onthe Federal Procession in Philadelphia," July 9, 1788.

[88] Gazette of the United States (Washington,D.C.: May 9, 1789), p. 1, quoting from "Extract from "AmericanEssays: The Importance of the Protestant Religion Politically Considered."

[89] "About BLS: History," BostonLatin School (at:http://www.bls.org/podium/default.aspx?t=113646&rc=0) (accessed on October1, 2010)

[90] The Code of 1650, Being aCompilation of the Earliest Laws and Orders of the General Court of Connecticut (Hartford:Silus Andrus, 1822), pp. 90-92. See also Church of the Holy Trinityv. U. S., 143 U. S. 457, 467 (1892).

[91] Appleton's Cyclopedia of AmericanBiography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), s.v. "JohnHarvard."

[92] Noah Webster, Letters to a YoungGentleman Commencing His Education (New Haven: Howe & Spalding, 1823),p. 237.

[93] John Maclean, History of theCollege of New Jersey, from its Origin in 1746 to the Commencement of 1854 (Philadelphia:J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1877), Vol. I, p. 70.

[94] The History of the College ofWilliam and Mary, from its Foundation, 1660, to 1874 (Richmond, VA: J.W.Randolph & English, 1874), p. 95.

[95] "Dartmouth History," Dartmouth University (at:http://www.dartmouth.edu/home/about/history.html) (accessed on October 1,2010).

[96] Warren A. Nord, Religion &American Education (North Carolina: The University of North CarolinaPress, 1995), p. 84, quoting from James Tunstead Burtchaell, "The Declineand Fall of the Christian College I," First Things, May 1991, p. 24,and George Marsden, The Soul of the American University (New York:Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 11, and Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), p. 198.

[97] E. P. Cubberley, Public Educationin the United States (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1919), p. 204. Seealso Luther A. Weigle,The Pageant of America: American Idealism, RalphHenry Gabriel, editor (Yale University Press, 1928), Vol. X, p. 315.

[98] Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), pp. 209-210.

[99] Noah Webster, A Collection ofPapers on Political, Literary, and Moral Subjects (New York: Webster andClark, 1843), p. 293, from his "Reply to a Letter of David McClure on theSubject of the Proper Course of Study in the Girard College, Philadelphia. NewHaven, October 25, 1836."

[100] The Christian TreasuryContaining Contributions from Ministers and Members of Various EvangelicalDenominations(Edinburgh: Johnstone, Hunter and Co., 1877), p. 203.

[101] Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing House MethodistEpiscopal Church, 1898), p. 77.

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