What is the Black Robed Regiment

David Barton

The Black RobedRegiment was the name that the British placed on the courageous and patrioticAmerican clergy during the Founding Era (a backhanded reference to the blackrobes they wore). [1]Significantly, the British blamed the Black Regiment for American Independence,[2]and rightfully so, for modern historians have documented that:

There is not a right asserted in theDeclaration of Independence which had not been discussed by the New Englandclergy before 1763. [3]

It is strange totoday's generation to think that the rights listed in the Declaration ofIndependence were nothing more than a listing of sermon topics that had beenpreached from the pulpit in the two decades leading up to the AmericanRevolution, but such was the case.

 

But it was not justthe British who saw the American pulpit as largely responsible for Americanindependence and government, our own leaders agreed. For example, John Adamsrejoiced that "the pulpits have thundered" [4]and specifically identified several ministers as being among the"characters the most conspicuous, the most ardent, and influential"in the "awakening and a revival of American principles and feelings"that led to American independence. [5]

 

Across subsequentgenerations, the great and positive influence of the Revolutionary clergy wasfaithfully reported. For example:

As a body of men, the clergy were pre-eminentin their attachment to liberty. The pulpits of the land rang with the notes offreedom. [6]The American Quarterly Register [MAGAZINE], 1833

If Christian ministers had not preached andprayed, there might have been no revolution as yet - or had it broken out, itmight have been crushed. [7]Bibliotheca Sacra [BRITISH PERIODICAL], 1856

The ministers of the Revolution were, liketheir Puritan predecessors, bold and fearless in the cause of their country. Noclass of men contributed more to carry forward the Revolution and to achieveour independence than did the ministers. . . . [B]y their prayers, patrioticsermons, and services [they] rendered the highest assistance to the civilgovernment, the army, and the country. [8]B. F. Morris, HISTORIAN, 1864

The Constitutional Convention and the writtenConstitution were the children of the pulpit. [9]Alice Baldwin, HISTORIAN, 1918

Had ministers been the only spokesman of therebellion - had Jefferson, the Adamses, and [James] Otis never appeared inprint - the political thought of the Revolution would have followed almostexactly the same line. . . . In the sermons of the patriot ministers . . . wefind expressed every possibly refinement of the reigning political faith. [10]Clinton Rossiter, HISTORIAN, 1953

The American clergywere faithful exponents of the fullness of God's Word, applying its principlesto every aspect of life, thus shaping America's institutes and culture. Theywere also at the forefront of proclaiming liberty, resisting tyranny, andopposing any encroachments on God-given rights and freedoms. In 1898, Methodistbishop and church historian Charles Galloway rightly observed of theseministers:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve andstrong hand and unblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reedsshaken by the wind, not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], butheroes of hardihood and lofty courage. . . . And such were the sons of themighty who responded to the Divine call. [11]

But the ministersduring the Revolutionary period were not necessarily unique; they were simplycontinuing what ministers had been doing to shape American government andculture in the century and a half preceding the Revolution.

 

For example, theearly settlers who arrived in Virginia beginning in 1606 included ministerssuch as the Revs. Robert Hunt, Richard Burke, William Mease, AlexanderWhitaker, William Wickham, and others. In 1619 they helped form America's firstrepresentative government: the Virginia House of Burgesses, with its memberselected from among the people. [12]That legislature met in the Jamestown church and was opened with prayer by theRev. Mr. Bucke; the elected legislators then sat in the church choir loft toconduct legislative business. [13]As Bishop Galloway later observed:

[T]he first movement toward democracy inAmerica was inaugurated in the house of God and with the blessing of theminister of God. [14]

In 1620, thePilgrims landed in Massachusetts to establish their colony. Their pastor, JohnRobinson, charged them to elect civil leaders who would not only seek the"common good" but who would also eliminate special privileges andstatus between governors and the governed [15]- a radical departure from the practice in the rest of the world at that time.The Pilgrims eagerly took that message to heart, organizing a representativegovernment and holding annual elections. [16]By 1636, they had also enacted a citizens' Bill of Rights - America's first. [17]

 

In 1630, thePuritans arrived and founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and under theleadership of their ministers, they, too, established representative governmentwith annual elections. [18]By 1641, they also had established a Bill of Rights (the "Body of Liberties")[19]- a document of individual rights drafted by the Rev. Nathaniel Ward. [20]

 

In 1636, the Rev.Roger Williams established the Rhode Island Colony and its representative formof government, [21]explaining that "[t]he sovereign, original, and foundation of civil powerlies in the people." [22]

 

The same year, theRev. Thomas Hooker (along with the Revs. Samuel Stone, John Davenport, andTheophilus Eaton) founded Connecticut. [23]They not only established an elective form of government [24]but in a 1638 sermon based on Deuteronomy 1:13 and Exodus 18:21, the Rev.Hooker explained the three Biblical principles that had guided the plan ofgovernment in Connecticut:

 

I. [T]he choice ofpublic magistrates belongs unto the people by God's own allowance.

II. The privilegeof election . . . belongs to the people . . .

III. They who havepower to appoint officers and magistrates [i.e., the people], it is in theirpower also to set the bounds and limitations of the power and place. [25]

 

From the Rev.Hooker's teachings and leadership sprang the "Fundamental Orders ofConnecticut" - America's first written constitution (and the directantecedent of the federal Constitution). [26]But while Connecticut produced America's first written constitution, itdefinitely had not produced America's first written document of governance, forsuch written documents had been the norm for every colony founded by Bible-mindedChristians. After all, this was the Scriptural model: God had given Moses afixed written law to govern that nation - a pattern that recurred throughoutthe Scriptures (c.f., Deuteronomy 17:18-20, 31:24, II Chronicles 34:15-21,etc.). As renowned Cornell University professor Clinton Rossiter affirmed:

[T]he Bible gave a healthy spur to the beliefin a written constitution. The Mosaic Code, too, was a higher law thatmen could live by - and appeal to - against the decrees and whims of ordinarymen. [27](emphasis added)

Written documentsof governance placed direct limitations on government and gave citizens maximumprotection against the whims of selfish leaders. This practice of providingwritten documents had been the practice of American ministers before the Rev.Hooker's constitution of 1638 and continued long after.

 

For example, in1676, New Jersey was chartered and then divided into two religioussub-colonies: Puritan East Jersey and Quaker West Jersey; each hadrepresentative government with annual elections. [28]The governing document for West Jersey was written by Christian ministerWilliam Penn. It declared:

We lay a foundation for after ages tounderstand their liberty . . . that they may not be brought in bondage but bytheir own consent, for we put the power in the people. [29]

Under Penn'sdocument . . .

Legislation was vested in a single assemblyelected by all the inhabitants; the elections were to be by secret ballot; theprinciple of "No taxation without representation" was clearlyasserted; freedom of conscience, trial by jury, and immunity from arrestwithout warrant were guaranteed. [30]

In 1681, Penn wrotethe Frame of Government for Pennsylvania. It, too, established annual electionsand provided numerous guarantees for citizen rights. [31]

 

There are manyadditional examples, but it is indisputable that  ministers played acritical role in instituting and securing many of America's most significantcivil rights and freedoms. As Founding Father Noah Webster affirmed:

The learned clergy . . . had great influencein founding the first genuine republican governments ever formed and which,with all the faults and defects of the men and their laws, were the bestrepublican governments on earth. At this moment, the people of this country areindebted chiefly to their institutions for the rights and privileges which areenjoyed. [32]

Daniel Webster (thegreat "Defender of the Constitution") agreed:

[T]o the free and universal reading of theBible in that age men were much indebted for right views of civil liberty. [33]

Because Christianministers established in America freedoms and opportunities not generallyavailable even in the mother country of Great Britain, they were also at theforefront of resisting encroachments on the civil and religious liberties thatthey had helped secure.

 

For example, whencrown-appointed Governor Edmund Andros tried to seize the charters of RhodeIsland, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, revoke their representativegovernments, and force the establishment of the British Anglican Church uponthem, opposition to Andros' plan was led by the Revs. Samuel Willard, IncreaseMather, and especially the Rev. John Wise. [34]The Rev. Wise was even imprisoned by Andros for his resistance but he remainedan unflinching voice for freedom, penning in 1710 and 1717 two works forcefullyasserting that democracy was God's ordained government in both Church andState, [35]thus causing historians to title him "The Founder of AmericanDemocracy." [36]

 

And when GovernorBerkley refused to recognize Virginia's self-government, Quaker ministerWilliam Edmundson and the Rev. Thomas Harrison led the opposition. [37]When Governor Thomas Hutchinson ignored the elected Massachusetts legislature,the Rev. Dr. Samuel Cooper led the opposition. [38]And a similar pattern was followed when Governor William Burnet dissolved theNew Hampshire legislature, Governor Botetourt disbanded the Virginia House ofBurgesses, Governor James Wright disbanded the Georgia Assembly, etc.

 

And becauseAmerican preachers consistently opposed encroachments on civil and religiousliberties, when the British imposed on Americans the 1765 Stamp Act (an earlyharbinger of the rupture between the two nations soon to follow), at the vanguardof the opposition to that act were the Revs. Andrew Eliot, Charles Chauncey,Samuel Cooper, Jonathan Mayhew, and George Whitefield [39]

 

(Whitefield evenaccompanied Benjamin Franklin to Parliament to protest the Act and assertcolonial rights). [40]In fact, one of the reasons that American resistance to the Stamp Act became sowidespread was because the "clergy fanned the fire of resistance to theStamp Act into a strong flame." [41]

 

Five years later in1770 when the British opened fire on their own citizens in the famous"Boston Massacre," ministers again stepped to the forefront, boldlydenouncing that abuse of power. A number of sermons were preached on thesubject, including by the Revs. John Lathrop, Charles Chauncey, and SamuelCooke; [42]the Massachusetts House of Representatives even ordered that Rev. Cooke'ssermon be printed and distributed. [43]

 

As tensions withthe British continued to grow, ministers such as the Rev. George Whitefield [44]and the Rev. Timothy Dwight [45]became some of the earliest leaders to advocate America's separation from GreatBritain.

 

There are manyadditional examples, but the historical records respecting the leadership ofthe clergy were so clear that in 1851, distinguished historian Benson Lossingconcluded:

[T]he Puritan preachers also promulgated thedoctrine of civil liberty - that the sovereign was amenable to the tribunal ofpublic opinion and ought to conform in practice to the expressed will of themajority of the people. By degrees their pulpits became the tribunes of thecommon people; and . . . on all occasions, the Puritan ministers werethe bold asserters of that freedom which the American Revolution established. [46](emphasis added)

However, Christianministers did not just teach the principles that led to independence, they alsoparticipated on the battlefield to secure that independence. One of thenumerous examples is the Rev. Jonas Clark.

 

When Paul Revereset off on his famous ride, it was to the home of the Rev. Clark in Lexingtonthat he rode. Patriot leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams were lodging (asthey often did) with the Rev. Clark. After learning of the approaching Britishforces, Hancock and Adams turned to Pastor Clark and inquired of him whetherthe people were ready to fight. Clark unhesitatingly replied, "I havetrained them for this very hour!" [47]When the original alarm sounded in Lexington to warn of the oncoming Britishmenace, citizens gathered at the town green, and according to early historianJoel Headley:

There they found their pastor the [Rev.Clark] who had arrived before them. The roll was called and a hundred and fiftyanswered to their names . . . . The church, the pastor, and his congregationthus standing together in the dim light [awaiting the Redcoats], while thestars looked tranquilly down from the sky above them. [48]

The British did notappear at that first alarm, and the people returned home. At the subsequentalarm, they reassembled, and once the sound of the battle subsided, someeighteen Americans lay on Lexington Green; seven were dead - all from the Rev.Clark's church. [49]Headley therefore concluded, "The teachings of the pulpit of Lexingtoncaused the first blow to be struck for American Independence," [50]and historian James Adams added that "the patriotic preaching of theReverend Jonas Clark primed those guns." [51]

 

When the Britishtroops left Lexington, they fought at Concord Bridge and then headed back toBoston, encountering increasing American resistance on their return.Significantly, many who awaited the British along the road were local pastors(such as the Rev. Phillips Payson [52]and the Rev. Benjamin Balch [53])who had heard of the unprovoked British attack on the Americans, taken up theirown arms, and then rallied their congregations to meet the returning British.As word of the attack spread wider, pastors from other areas also responded.

 

For example, whenword reached Vermont, the Rev. David Avery promptly gathered twenty men andmarched toward Boston, recruiting additional troops along the way, [54]and the Rev. Stephen Farrar of New Hampshire led 97 of his parishioners toBoston. [55]The ranks of resistance to the British swelled through the efforts of Christianministers who "were far more effective than army recruiters in rounding upcitizen-soldiers." [56]

 

Weeks later whenthe Americans fought the British at Bunker Hill, American ministers againdelved headlong into the fray. For example, when the Rev. David Grosvenor heardthat the battle had commenced, he left from his pulpit - rifle in hand - andpromptly marched to the scene of action, [57]as did the Rev. Jonathan French. [58]

 

This pattern wascommon through the Revolution - as when the Rev. Thomas Reed marched to thedefense of Philadelphia against British General Howe; [59]the Rev. John Steele led American forces in attacking the British; [60]the Rev. Isaac Lewis helped lead the resistance to the British landing at Norwalk,Connecticut; [61]the Rev. Joseph Willard raised two full companies and then marched with them tobattle; [62]the Rev. James Latta, when many of his parishioners were drafted, joined withthem as a common soldier; [63]and the Rev. William Graham joined the military as a rifleman in order toencourage others in his parish to do the same [64].Furthermore:

Of Rev. John Craighead it is said that"he fought and preached alternately." Rev. Dr. Cooper was captain ofa military company. Rev. John Blair Smith, president of Hampden-Sidney College,was captain of a company that rallied to support the retreating Americans afterthe battle of Cowpens. Rev. James Hall commanded a company that armed againstCornwallis. Rev. William Graham rallied his own neighbors to dispute thepassage of Rockfish Gap with Tarleton and his British dragoons. [65]

There are manyadditional examples. No wonder the British dubbed the patriotic American clergythe "Black Regiment." [66]But because of their strong leadership, ministers were often targeted by theBritish. As Headley confirms:

[T]here was a class of clergymen andchaplains in the Revolution whom the British, when they once laid hands onthem, treated with the most barbarous severity. Dreading them for the influencethey wielded and hating them for the obstinacy, courage, and enthusiasm theyinfused into the rebels, they violated all the usages of war among civilizednations in order to inflict punishment upon them. [67]

Among these was theRev. Naphtali Daggett, President of Yale. When the British approached New Havento enter private homes and desecrate property and belongings, Daggett offeredstiff and at times almost single-handed resistance to the British invasion,standing alone on a hillside, repeatedly firing his rifle down at the hundredsof British troops below. Eventually captured, over a period of several hoursthe British stabbed and pricked Daggett multiple times with their bayonets.Local townspeople lobbied the British and eventually secured the release of thepreacher, but Daggett never recovered from those wounds, which eventuallycaused his death. [68]When the Rev. James Caldwell offered similar resistance in New Jersey, theBritish burned his church and he and his family were murdered. [69]

 

The British abused,killed, or imprisoned many other clergymen, [70]who often suffered harsher treatment and more severe penalties than didordinary imprisoned soldiers. [71]But the British targeted not just ministers but also their churches. As aresult, of the nineteen church buildings in New York City, ten were destroyedby the British, [72]and most of the churches in Virginia suffered the same fate. [73]This pattern was repeated throughout many other parts of the country.

 

Truly, Christianministers provided courageous leadership throughout the Revolution, and asbriefly noted earlier, they had also been largely responsible for laying itsintellectual foundation. To understand more of their influence, consider theRev. John Wise.

 

As early as 1687,the Rev. Wise was already teaching that "taxation without representationis tyranny," [74]the "consent of the governed" was the foundation of government, [75]and that "every man must be acknowledged equal to every man." [76]In 1772 with the Revolution on the horizon, two of Wise's works were reprintedby leading patriots and the Sons of Liberty to refresh America's understandingof the core Biblical principles of government. [77](The first printing sold so fast that a quick second reprint was quicklyissued. [78])Significantly, many of the specific points made by Wise in that worksubsequently appeared four years later in the very language of the Declarationof Independence. As historian Benjamin Morris affirmed in 1864:

[S]ome of the most glittering sentences inthe immortal Declaration of Independence are almost literal quotations fromthis [1772 reprinted] essay of John Wise. . . . It was used as a politicaltext-book in the great struggle for freedom. [79]

And decades laterwhen President Calvin Coolidge delivered a 1926 speech in Philadelphia on the150th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, he similarlyacknowledged:

The thoughts [in the Declaration] can verylargely be traced back to what John Wise was writing in 1710. [80]

It was Christianministers such as John Wise (and scores like him) who, through their writingsand countless sermons (such as their Election Sermons and other sermons on theBiblical principles of government) laid the intellectual basis for AmericanIndependence.

Christian clergylargely defined America's unique political theory and even defended it inmilitary combat, but they were also leaders in the national legislativecouncils in order to help implement what they had conceived and birthed. Forexample, the Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon was a member of the Continental Congresswho served during the Revolution on the Board of War as well as on over 100 congressionalcommittees. [81]Other ministers who served in the Continental Congress included the Revs.Joseph Montgomery, Hugh Williamson, John Zubly, and more.

 

Numerous ministersalso served in state legislatures - such as the Rev. Jacob Green of New Jersey,who helped set aside the British government in that state and was made chairmanof the committee that drafted the state's original constitution in 1776; [82]the Rev. Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, who helped draft Pennsylvania's 1776constitution; [83]the Rev. Samuel Stillman, who helped draft Massachusetts' 1780 constitution; [84]etc.

 

When hostilitiesceased at the end of the Revolution, Christian ministers led in the movementfor a federal constitution. For example, the Revs. Jeremy Belknap, SamuelStanhope Smith, John Witherspoon, and James Manning began pointing out thedefects of the Articles of Confederation, [85]and when the Constitution was finally complete and submitted to the states forratification, nearly four dozen clergymen were elected as ratifying delegates, [86]many of whom played key roles in securing its adoption in their respectivestates.

 

Following theadoption of the new federal Constitution, ministers were highly active incelebrating its ratification. For example, of the parade in Philadelphia,signer of the Declaration Benjamin Rush happily reported:

The clergy formed a very agreeable part ofthe procession. They manifested by their attendance their sense of theconnection between religion and good government. They. . . . marched arm in armwith each other to exemplify the Union. [87]

When the firstfederal Congress under the new Constitution convened, several ministers wereMembers, including the Revs. Frederick Augustus and John Peter GabrielMuhlenberg, Abiel Foster, Benjamin Contee, Abraham Baldwin, and Paine Wingate.

 

Ministers wereintimately involved in every aspect of introducing, defining, and securingAmerica's civil and religious liberties. A 1789 Washington, D. C., newspapertherefore proudly reported:

[O]ur truly patriotic clergy boldly andzealously stepped forth and bravely stood our distinguished sentinels to watchand warn us against approaching danger; they wisely saw that our religious andcivil liberties were inseparably connected and therefore warmly excited andanimated the people resolutely to oppose and repel every hostile invader. . . .[M]ay the virtue, zeal and patriotism of our clergy be ever particularlyremembered. [88]

Incidentally,besides their contributions to government and civil and religious liberty, theBlack Robed Regiment was also largely responsible for education in America.Ministers, understanding that only a literate people well versed in theteachings of the Bible could sustain free and enlightened government, thereforeestablished an education system that would teach and preserve the religiousprinciples so indispensable to the civil and religious liberties theyforcefully advocated.

 

Consequently, in1635 the Puritans established America's first public school, [89]and in 1647 passed America' first public education law ("The Old DeluderSatan Act" [90]).And Harvard University was founded through the direction of Puritan ministerJohn Harvard; [91]Yale was founded by ten congregational ministers; [92]Princeton by Presbyterian ministers Jonathan Dickinson, John Pierson, andEbenezer Pemberton; [93]William and Mary by Episcopal minister James Blair; [94]Dartmouth by Congregational minister Eleazar Wheelock; [95]etc.

 

This trend ofGospel ministers founding and leading American educational institutionscontinued for the next two-and-a-half centuries, and by 1860, ninety-onepercent of all college presidents were ministers of the Gospel - as were morethan a third of all university faculty members. [96]Of the 246 colleges founded by the close of that year, only seventeen were notaffiliated with some denomination; [97]and by 1884, eighty-three percent of America's 370 colleges still remaineddenominational colleges. [98]As Founding Father Noah Webster (the "Schoolmaster to America")affirmed, "to them [the clergy] is popular education in this country moreindebted than to any other class of men." [99]

 

In short, historydemonstrates that America's elective governments, her educational system, andmany other positive aspects of American life and culture were the product ofBiblical-thinking Christian clergy and leaders. Today, however, as theinfluence of the clergy has waned, many of these institutions have come underunprecedented attack and many of our traditional freedoms have beensignificantly eroded. It is time for America's clergy to understand and reclaimthe important position of influence they have been given. As the Rev. CharlesFinney - a leader of the Second Great Awakening - reminded ministers in hisday:

Brethren, our preaching will bear itslegitimate fruits. If immorality prevails in the land, the fault is ours in agreat degree. If there is a decay of conscience, the pulpit is responsible forit. If the public press lacks moral discrimination, the pulpit is responsiblefor it. If the church is degenerate and worldly, the pulpit is responsible forit. If the world loses its interest in religion, the pulpit is responsible forit. If Satan rules in our halls of legislation, the pulpit is responsible forit. If our politics become so corrupt that the very foundations of ourgovernment are ready to fall away, the pulpit is responsible for it. Let us notignore this fact, my dear brethren; but let us lay it to heart, and bethoroughly awake to our responsibility in respect to the morals of this nation.[100]

America once againneeds the type of courageous ministers described by Bishop Galloway:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve andstrong hand and unblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reedsshaken by the wind, not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], butheroes of hardihood and lofty courage. . . .And such were the sons of themighty who responded to the Divine call. [101]

It is time toreinvigorate the Black Robed Regiment!

 

Video about the Black Regiment

The Black Regiment



References:


[1]Boston Gazette, December 7, 1772, article by "Israelite," and BostonWeekly Newsletter, January 11, 1776, article by Peter Oliver, Britishofficial. See also Peter Oliver, Peter Oliver's Origin & Progressof the American Rebellion, Douglas Adair and John A. Schutz, editors (SanMarino California: The Huntington Library, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45; CarlBridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (New York: Oxford University Press,1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), pp. 98, 155.

[2]Alpheus Packard, "Nationality," Bibliotheca Sacra andAmerican Biblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper, 1856),Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin Franklin Morris, ChristianLife and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States(Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[3]Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution(New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 170.

[4]John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor(Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), Vol. III, p. 476, "TheEarl of Clarendon to William Pym," January 20, 1766.

[5]John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1850), Vol. X, p. 284, to Hezekiah Niles,February 13, 1818. See also John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.,1856), Vol. X, pp. 271-272, letter to William Wirt, January 5, 1818.

[6]"History of Revivals of Religion, From the Settlement of the Country tothe Present Time," The American Quarterly Register, (Boston:Perkins and Marvin, 1833) Vol. 5, p. 217. See also Benjamin FranklinMorris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of the UnitedStates (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[7]Alpheus Packard, "Nationality," Bibliotheca Sacra andAmerican Biblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper, 1856),Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin Franklin Morris, ChristianLife and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States(Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[8]Benjamin Franklin Morris, Christian Life and Character of the CivilInstitutions of the United States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864),pp. 334-335.

[9]Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution(New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1958), p. 134.

[10]Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt, Braceand Co., 1953), pp. 328-329.

[11]Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 77.

[12]Colonial National Historical Park, "The First Legislative Assembly atJamestown, Virginia," National Park Service (at:http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/1stASSLY.html) (accessed on September24, 2010).

[13]Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), pp. 1131-114;John Fiske, Civil Government in the United States Considered with someReference to Its Origins (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1890), p.146.

[14]Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 114.

[15]Old South Leaflets, (Boston: Directors of the Old South Work), p. 372,"Words of John Robinson (1620)"; "John Robinson's FarewellLetter to the Pilgrims, July 22, 1620," Pilgrim Hall Museum, July 22, 1620 (at: http://www.pilgrimhall.org/RobinsonLetter.htm).

[16]"Plymouth Colony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html) (accessed onSeptember 24, 2010). See also Robert Baird, Religion in America(New York: Harper & Brothers, 1845), p. 51.

[17]"Plymouth Colony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html) (accessed onSeptember 24, 2010).

[18]Henry William Elson, History of the United States of America, (New York:The MacMillan Company, 1904), Ch. IV, pp. 103-111. See also"Massachusetts Bay," History of the USA (at:http://www.usahistory.info/New-England/Massachusetts.html) (accessed onSeptember 30, 2010).

[19]"Plymouth Colony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html) (accessed onSeptember 30, 2010).

[20]George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of theAmerican Continent (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1858), Vol. I, p.416-417; Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), pp.124-125; Old South Leaflets, (Boston: Directors of the Old South Work),p. 261-280, "The Body of Liberties: The Liberties of the MassachusettsColonie in New England, 1641."

[21]"Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," The AvalonProject, July 15, 1663 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp).

[22]Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution(New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 27 quoting Roger Williams' The BloodyTenet, p. 137, quoted by Isaac Backus, Church History of New England,I. 62 of 1839.

[23]"Connecticut to 1763," Connecticut's Heritage Gateway (at:http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/ctto1763/overviewctto1763.htm) (accessedon September 30, 2010).

[24]The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other OrganicLaws, Francis Newton Thorpe, editor (Washington: Government PrintingOffice, 1909), Vol. 1, p. 534, "Charter of Connecticut-1662."

[25]Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt, Braceand Co., 1953), p. 171.

[26]John Fiske, The Beginnings of New England (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin& Co., 1898), pp. 127-128.

[27]Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt, Braceand Co., 1953), p. 32. See also, J. M. Mathews, The Bible and CivilGovernment, in a Course of Lectures (New York: Robert Carter & Brothers,1851), pp. 67-68.

[28]"Province of West New Jersey in America," Art. I, The AvalonProject, November 25, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj08.asp); "The FundamentalConstitutions for the Province of East New Jersey in America, Anno Domini1683," Art. II-III, The Avalon Project, 1683 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj10.asp). See also"Colonial America," United States History (at:http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h591.html) (accessed on September 23, 2010).

[29]Ernest Sutherland Bates, American Faith (New York: W. W. Norton &Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[30]Ernest Sutherland Bates, American Faith (New York: W. W. Norton &Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[31]"Charter for the Province of Pennsylvannia-1681," The AvalonProject, February 28, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/pa01.asp).

[32]Noah Webster, Letters of Noah Webster, Harry R. Warfel, editor (NewYork: Library Publishers, 1953, p. 455, letter to David McClure, October 25,1836.

[33]Daniel Webster, Address Delivered at Bunker Hill, June 17, 1843, on theCompletion of the Monument (Boston: T. R. Marvin, 1843), p. 31.

[34]John Fiske, The Beginnings of New England (Boston and New York:Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1898), pp. 267-272.

[35]John Wise, A Vindication of the Government of New- England Churches(Boston: John Boyles, 1772), p. 45.

[36]"Top Ipswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[37]John Fiske, Old Virginia and Her Neighbors (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin,and Company, 1901), Vol. II, p. 57, and Vol. I, pp. 306, 311.

[38]Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,1930), s.v. "Samuel Cooper."

[39]Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the American Revolution(New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 90; Stephen Mansfield, ForgottenFounding Father: The Heroic Legacy of George Whitefield (Cumberland House,2001), p. 112.

[40]Stephen Mansfield, Forgotten Founding Father: The Heroic Legacy of GeorgeWhitefield (Cumberland House, 2001), p. 112.

[41]Alice M. Baldwin, The Clergy of Connecticut in Revolutionary Days (YaleUniversity Press, 1936), p. 30.

[42]Claude H. Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), p. 362.

[43]John Wingate Thornton, Pulpit of the American Revolution (Boston: Gouldand Lincoln, 1860), pp. 147-148. See also Claude H. Van Tyne, TheCauses of the War of Independence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922),p. 362.

[44]George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of theAmerican Continent (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1858), Vol. V, p. 193.

[45]B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals of the Republic(Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp. 367-368.

[46]Benjamin Lossing, Pictorial Fieldbook of the Revolution (New York:Harper & Brothers, 1851), Vol. I, p. 440.

[47]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 34. Only source we can locate is Cole's.

[48]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 79.

[49]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 79-82

[50]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Scribner, 1864), p. 82.

[51]James L. Adams, Yankee Doodle Went to Church: The Righteous Revolution of1776 (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1989), p. 22.

[52]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[53]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[54]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[55]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[56]James L. Adams, Yankee Doodle Went to Church (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H.Revell Company, 1989), p. 153.

[57]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[58]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[59]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 68.

[60]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69; Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography,s.v. "John Steele."

[61]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 71-72.

[62]Franklin Cole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[63]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 72.

[64]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69.

[65]Daniel Dorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips & Hunt, 1888),p. 265.

[66]Boston Gazette, December 7, 1772, article by "Israelite," and BostonWeekly Newsletter, January 11, 1776, article by Peter Oliver, Britishofficial. See also Peter Oliver, Peter Oliver's Origin & Progressof the American Rebellion, Douglas Adair and John A. Schutz, editors (SanMarino California: The Huntington Library, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45; CarlBridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (New York: Oxford University Press,1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), pp. 98, 155.

[67]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[68]William Buell Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit: TrinitarianCongregation, (New York: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1857), p. 482.

[69]B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals of the Republic(Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864) p. 350.

[70]Daniel Dorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips & Hunt, 1888),p. 265.

[71]J. T. Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (New York:Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[72]Daniel Dorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips & Hunt, 1888),p. 266.

[73]Daniel Dorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips & Hunt, 1888),p. 267.

[74]Linda Stewart, "The Other Cape," American Heritage (at:http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2001/2/2001_2_50.shtml)(accessed on September 24, 2010).

[75]Clinton Rossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt, Braceand Co., 1953), p. 219.

[76]"Top Ipswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[77]"Top Ipswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[78]Claude H. Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Boston andNew York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), Vol. I, p. 357.

[79]John Wise, A Vindication of the Government of New England Churches: and theChurches' Quarrel Espoused (Boston: Congregational Board of Publication,1860), pp. xx-xxi, "Introductory Remarks" by Rev. J. S. Clark. Seealso B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutionsof the United States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals of theRepublic (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), p. 341

[80]Calvin Coolidge, "Speech on the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary ofthe Declaration of Independence," Teaching American History, July5, 1926 (at:http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=41).

[81]Political Sermons of the American Founding Era: 1730-1805, Ellis Sandoz,editor (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund: 1998), Vol. 1, p. 530, from Sermons 17 onJohn Witherspoon intro.

[82]B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals of theRepublic (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), p. 366.

[83]William Warren Sweet, The Story of Religion in America (New York: Harper& Brothers Publishers, 1950), p. 182.

[84]Frank Moore, Patriot Preachers of the American Revolution (Boston: Gouldand Lincoln: 1860), p. 260.

[85]James Hutchinson Smylie, American Clergymen and the Constitution of theUnited States of America (New Jersey: Princeton Theological Seminary,doctoral dissertation 1958), pp. 127-129, 139, 143.

[86]John Eidsmoe, Christianity and the Constitution (Grand Rapids, MI: BakerBooks, 1987), p. 352, n. 15.

[87]Benjamin Rush, Letters of Benjamin Rush, L. H. Butterfield, editor(Princeton: American Philosophical Society, 1951), Vol. I, p. 474, letter toElias Boudinot, "Observations on the Federal Procession inPhiladelphia," July 9, 1788.

[88]Gazette of the United States (Washington, D.C.: May 9, 1789), p. 1,quoting from "Extract from "American Essays: The Importance of theProtestant Religion Politically Considered."

[89]"About BLS: History," Boston Latin School (at:http://www.bls.org/podium/default.aspx?t=113646&rc=0) (accessed on October1, 2010)

[90]The Code of 1650, Being a Compilation of the Earliest Laws and Orders of theGeneral Court of Connecticut (Hartford: Silus Andrus, 1822), pp. 90-92. Seealso Church of the Holy Trinity v. U. S., 143 U. S. 457, 467 (1892).

[91]Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton andCompany, 1888), s.v. "John Harvard."

[92]Noah Webster, Letters to a Young Gentleman Commencing His Education (NewHaven: Howe & Spalding, 1823), p. 237.

[93]John Maclean, History of the College of New Jersey, from its Origin in 1746to the Commencement of 1854 (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.,1877), Vol. I, p. 70.

[94]The History of the College of William and Mary, from its Foundation, 1660,to 1874 (Richmond, VA: J.W. Randolph & English, 1874), p. 95.

[95]"Dartmouth History," Dartmouth University (at:http://www.dartmouth.edu/home/about/history.html) (accessed on October 1, 2010).

[96]Warren A. Nord, Religion & American Education (North Carolina: TheUniversity of North Carolina Press, 1995), p. 84, quoting from James TunsteadBurtchaell, "The Decline and Fall of the Christian College I," FirstThings, May 1991, p. 24, and George Marsden, The Soul of the AmericanUniversity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 11, and Charles B.Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth (Nashville:Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 198.

[97]E. P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States (Boston:Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1919), p. 204. See also Luther A. Weigle, ThePageant of America: American Idealism, Ralph Henry Gabriel, editor (YaleUniversity Press, 1928), Vol. X, p. 315.

[98]Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), pp. 209-210.

[99]Noah Webster, A Collection of Papers on Political, Literary, and MoralSubjects (New York: Webster and Clark, 1843), p. 293, from his "Replyto a Letter of David McClure on the Subject of the Proper Course of Study inthe Girard College, Philadelphia. New Haven, October 25, 1836."

[100]The Christian Treasury Containing Contributions from Ministers and Membersof Various Evangelical Denominations (Edinburgh: Johnstone, Hunter and Co.,1877), p. 203.

[101]Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 77.

 

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