Black Robed Regiment


Many Christians and their church leaders would be shocked to learn that it was actually the clergy in America that played a major role in leading America's revolution. In fact, the British hated them because they preached against King George and his tyranny against the American people. The British referred to them as the "Black Robed Regiment," 

Many of these church leaders had been directly influenced by the Reformational views of John Calvin. He showed that the Bible revealed all men have a fallen and sinful nature. Therefore, no one man can be entrusted with too much power. He suggested a form of government which would take into consideration man's fallen nature and distribute the powers of the government. The end result should be a distribution of power so no one man could gain excessive power and abuse it by not being held accountable to others. This is the same checks and balance system we see in American government today.

Calvin also taught that the Bible had two separate jurisdictions for the church and state. He showed from the Bible that both jurisdictions were to be under the rule of God and His law. This teaching regarding the relationship between the church and the state.opened the door for a major cultural revolution in Europe. It led to the rise of republic forms of government in which the government rulers were understood to be in a covenantal relationship with both God and the people. 

Under this republic form of government, the people, the king and the church leaders were in a coventantal relationship with God and his law. The head of state could not act as he/she desired but were under the laws of God. If the ruler acted tyrannically, the remedy was to confront the ruler by the lower magistrates or rulers elected by the people to represent them. The church was also to play its part acting as a prophetic voice to the government and also in the discipleship of its people concerning a biblical manner of civil governance. 

The result was a checks and balance system of governments.  The heads of state were to be servant leaders seeking the best interests of the people with regard to their goals of leadership. The church leaders would act as a prophetic voice to both the people and the head of state. If the head of state began to abuse his powers, the church leaders would confront his behavior. If the head of state continued to act as a tyrant the church could appeal to the people to drop their support of the ruler in order to curb his tyrannical behavior. If the ruler persisted in his tyrannical behavior the church leaders could not recognize his lawful authority to rule. If the state ruler persisted in abusing the people and the people could not retreat from his tyrannical behaviors, then at that point, the people could revolt against the tyrannical state leader. This set of steps was followed by our Founding Fathers. They established a biblical example for dealing with a tyrannical state leader which was derived from the Bible.




Following is a history of these brave men as described by historian David Barton.

A Brief History by DavidBarton

 

The Black Robed Regiment was the name that the British placed onthe courageous and patriotic American clergy during the FoundingEra (a backhanded reference to the black robes they wore). [1] Significantly, the Britishblamed the Black Regiment for American Independence, [2] and rightfully so, for modern historianshave documented that:

There is not a right asserted in the Declaration ofIndependence which had not been discussed by the New England clergybefore 1763. [3]

It is strange to today's generation to think that the rightslisted in the Declaration of Independence were nothing more than alisting of sermon topics that had been preached from the pulpit inthe two decades leading up to the American Revolution, but such wasthe case.

 

But it was not just the British who saw the American pulpit aslargely responsible for American independence and government, ourown leaders agreed. For example, John Adams rejoiced that "thepulpits have thundered" [4]and specifically identified several ministers as being among the"characters the most conspicuous, the most ardent, and influential"in the "awakening and a revival of American principles andfeelings" that led to American independence. [5]

 

Across subsequent generations, the great and positive influenceof the Revolutionary clergy was faithfully reported. Forexample:

As a body of men, the clergy were pre-eminent in theirattachment to liberty. The pulpits of the land rang with the notesof freedom. [6] TheAmerican Quarterly Register [MAGAZINE],1833
If Christian ministers had not preached and prayed,there might have been no revolution as yet - or had it broken out,it might have been crushed. [7] Bibliotheca Sacra [BRITISH PERIODICAL], 1856
The ministers of the Revolution were, like theirPuritan predecessors, bold and fearless in the cause of theircountry. No class of men contributed more to carry forward theRevolution and to achieve our independence than did the ministers.. . . [B]y their prayers, patriotic sermons, and services [they]rendered the highest assistance to the civil government, the army,and the country. [8]B. F. Morris, HISTORIAN,1864
The Constitutional Convention and the writtenConstitution were the children of the pulpit. [9] Alice Baldwin, HISTORIAN, 1918
Had ministers been the only spokesman of the rebellion- had Jefferson, the Adamses, and [James] Otis never appeared inprint - the political thought of the Revolution would have followedalmost exactly the same line. . . . In the sermons of the patriotministers . . . we find expressed every possibly refinement of thereigning political faith. [10] ClintonRossiter, HISTORIAN,1953

The American clergy were faithful exponents of the fullness ofGod's Word, applying its principles to every aspect of life, thusshaping America's institutes and culture. They were also at theforefront of proclaiming liberty, resisting tyranny, and opposingany encroachments on God-given rights and freedoms. In 1898,Methodist bishop and church historian Charles Galloway rightlyobserved of these ministers:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve and strong hand andunblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reeds shaken bythe wind, not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], butheroes of hardihood and lofty courage. . . . And such were the sonsof the mighty who responded to the Divine call. [11]

But the ministers during the Revolutionary period were notnecessarily unique; they were simply continuing what ministers hadbeen doing to shape American government and culture in the centuryand a half preceding the Revolution.

 

For example, the early settlers who arrived in Virginiabeginning in 1606 included ministers such as the Revs. Robert Hunt,Richard Burke, William Mease, Alexander Whitaker, William Wickham,and others. In 1619 they helped form America's first representativegovernment: the Virginia House of Burgesses, with its memberselected from among the people. [12] That legislature met in theJamestown church and was opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Bucke;the elected legislators then sat in the church choir loft toconduct legislative business. [13] As Bishop Galloway laterobserved:

[T]he first movement toward democracy in America wasinaugurated in the house of God and with the blessing of theminister of God. [14]

In 1620, the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts to establish theircolony. Their pastor, John Robinson, charged them to elect civilleaders who would not only seek the "common good" but who wouldalso eliminate special privileges and status between governors andthe governed [15] - a radical departure from thepractice in the rest of the world at that time. The Pilgrimseagerly took that message to heart, organizing a representativegovernment and holding annual elections. [16] By 1636, they had also enacted acitizens' Bill of Rights - America's first. [17]

 

In 1630, the Puritans arrived and founded the Massachusetts BayColony, and under the leadership of their ministers, they, too,established representative government with annual elections. [18] By 1641, theyalso had established a Bill of Rights (the "Body of Liberties") [19] - a documentof individual rights drafted by the Rev. Nathaniel Ward. [20]

 

In 1636, the Rev. Roger Williams established the Rhode IslandColony and its representative form of government, [21] explainingthat "[t]he sovereign, original, and foundation of civil power liesin the people." [22]

 

The same year, the Rev. Thomas Hooker (along with the Revs.Samuel Stone, John Davenport, and Theophilus Eaton) foundedConnecticut. [23] They not only established anelective form of government [24] but in a 1638 sermon based onDeuteronomy 1:13 and Exodus 18:21, the Rev. Hooker explained thethree Biblical principles that had guided the plan of government inConnecticut:

 

I. [T]he choice of publicmagistrates belongs unto the people by God's own allowance.

II. The privilege of election . . .belongs to the people . . .

III. They who have power to appointofficers and magistrates [i.e., the people], it is in their poweralso to set the bounds and limitations of the power and place. [25]

 

From the Rev. Hooker's teachings and leadership sprang the"Fundamental Orders of Connecticut" - America's first writtenconstitution (and the direct antecedent of the federalConstitution). [26] But while Connecticut producedAmerica's first written constitution, it definitely had notproduced America's first written document of governance, for suchwritten documents had been the norm for every colony founded byBible-minded Christians. After all, this was the Scriptural model:God had given Moses a fixed written law to govern that nation - apattern that recurred throughout the Scriptures (c.f., Deuteronomy17:18-20, 31:24, II Chronicles 34:15-21, etc.). As renowned CornellUniversity professor Clinton Rossiter affirmed:

[T]he Bible gave a healthy spur to the belief in awritten constitution. The Mosaic Code, too, was ahigher law that men could live by - and appeal to - against thedecrees and whims of ordinary men. [27] (emphasis added)

Written documents of governance placed direct limitations ongovernment and gave citizens maximum protection against the whimsof selfish leaders. This practice of providing written documentshad been the practice of American ministers before the Rev.Hooker's constitution of 1638 and continued long after.

 

For example, in 1676, New Jersey was chartered and then dividedinto two religious sub-colonies: Puritan East Jersey and QuakerWest Jersey; each had representative government with annualelections. [28]The governing document for West Jersey was written by Christianminister William Penn. It declared:

We lay a foundation for after ages to understand theirliberty . . . that they may not be brought in bondage but by theirown consent, for we put the power in the people. [29]

Under Penn's document . . .

Legislation was vested in a single assembly elected byall the inhabitants; the elections were to be by secret ballot; theprinciple of "No taxation without representation" was clearlyasserted; freedom of conscience, trial by jury, and immunity fromarrest without warrant were guaranteed. [30]

In 1681, Penn wrote the Frame of Government for Pennsylvania.It, too, established annual elections and provided numerousguarantees for citizen rights. [31]


There are many additional examples, but it is indisputablethat  ministers played a critical role in instituting andsecuring many of America's most significant civil rights andfreedoms. As Founding Father Noah Webster affirmed:

The learned clergy . . . had great influence infounding the first genuine republican governments ever formed andwhich, with all the faults and defects of the men and their laws,were the best republican governments on earth. At this moment, thepeople of this country are indebted chiefly to their institutionsfor the rights and privileges which are enjoyed. [32]

Daniel Webster (the great "Defender of the Constitution")agreed:

[T]o the free and universal reading of the Bible inthat age men were much indebted for right views of civil liberty.[33]

Because Christian ministers established in America freedoms andopportunities not generally available even in the mother country ofGreat Britain, they were also at the forefront of resistingencroachments on the civil and religious liberties that they hadhelped secure.

 

For example, when crown-appointed Governor Edmund Andros triedto seize the charters of Rhode Island, Connecticut, andMassachusetts, revoke their representative governments, and forcethe establishment of the British Anglican Church upon them,opposition to Andros' plan was led by the Revs. Samuel Willard,Increase Mather, and especially the Rev. John Wise. [34] The Rev. Wisewas even imprisoned by Andros for his resistance but he remained anunflinching voice for freedom, penning in 1710 and 1717 two worksforcefully asserting that democracy was God's ordained governmentin both Church and State, [35] thus causing historians to titlehim "The Founder of American Democracy." [36]

 

And when Governor Berkley refused to recognize Virginia'sself-government, Quaker minister William Edmundson and the Rev.Thomas Harrison led the opposition. [37] When Governor Thomas Hutchinsonignored the elected Massachusetts legislature, the Rev. Dr. SamuelCooper led the opposition. [38] And a similar pattern wasfollowed when Governor William Burnet dissolved the New Hampshirelegislature, Governor Botetourt disbanded the Virginia House ofBurgesses, Governor James Wright disbanded the Georgia Assembly,etc.

 

And because American preachers consistently opposedencroachments on civil and religious liberties, when the Britishimposed on Americans the 1765 Stamp Act (an early harbinger of therupture between the two nations soon to follow), at the vanguard ofthe opposition to that act were the Revs. Andrew Eliot, CharlesChauncey, Samuel Cooper, Jonathan Mayhew, and George Whitefield [39]


(Whitefield even accompanied Benjamin Franklin to Parliament toprotest the Act and assert colonial rights). [40] In fact, one of the reasons thatAmerican resistance to the Stamp Act became so widespread wasbecause the "clergy fanned the fire of resistance to the Stamp Actinto a strong flame." [41]


Five years later in 1770 when the British opened fire on theirown citizens in the famous "Boston Massacre," ministers againstepped to the forefront, boldly denouncing that abuse of power. Anumber of sermons were preached on the subject, including by theRevs. John Lathrop, Charles Chauncey, and Samuel Cooke; [42] theMassachusetts House of Representatives even ordered that Rev.Cooke's sermon be printed and distributed. [43]


As tensions with the British continued to grow, ministers suchas the Rev. George Whitefield [44] and the Rev. Timothy Dwight [45] became some ofthe earliest leaders to advocate America's separation from GreatBritain.

 

There are many additional examples, but the historical recordsrespecting the leadership of the clergy were so clear that in 1851,distinguished historian Benson Lossing concluded:

[T]he Puritan preachers also promulgated the doctrineof civil liberty - that the sovereign was amenable to the tribunalof public opinion and ought to conform in practice to the expressedwill of the majority of the people. By degrees their pulpits becamethe tribunes of the common people; and . . . on alloccasions, the Puritan ministers were the bold assertersof that freedom which the American Revolution established. [46] (emphasisadded)

However, Christian ministers did not just teach the principlesthat led to independence, they also participated on the battlefieldto secure that independence. One of the numerous examples is theRev. Jonas Clark.

 

When Paul Revere set off on his famous ride, it was to the homeof the Rev. Clark in Lexington that he rode. Patriot leaders JohnHancock and Samuel Adams were lodging (as they often did) with theRev. Clark. After learning of the approaching British forces,Hancock and Adams turned to Pastor Clark and inquired of himwhether the people were ready to fight. Clark unhesitatinglyreplied, "I have trained them for this very hour!" [47] When theoriginal alarm sounded in Lexington to warn of the oncoming Britishmenace, citizens gathered at the town green, and according to earlyhistorian Joel Headley:

There they found their pastor the [Rev. Clark] who hadarrived before them. The roll was called and a hundred and fiftyanswered to their names . . . . The church, the pastor, and hiscongregation thus standing together in the dim light [awaiting theRedcoats], while the stars looked tranquilly down from the skyabove them. [48]

The British did not appear at that first alarm, and the peoplereturned home. At the subsequent alarm, they reassembled, and oncethe sound of the battle subsided, some eighteen Americans lay onLexington Green; seven were dead - all from the Rev. Clark'schurch. [49]Headley therefore concluded, "The teachings of the pulpit ofLexington caused the first blow to be struck for AmericanIndependence," [50] and historian James Adams addedthat "the patriotic preaching of the Reverend Jonas Clark primedthose guns." [51]


When the British troops left Lexington, they fought at ConcordBridge and then headed back to Boston, encountering increasingAmerican resistance on their return. Significantly, many whoawaited the British along the road were local pastors (such as theRev. Phillips Payson [52] and the Rev. Benjamin Balch [53]) who had heardof the unprovoked British attack on the Americans, taken up theirown arms, and then rallied their congregations to meet thereturning British. As word of the attack spread wider, pastors fromother areas also responded.

 

For example, when word reached Vermont, the Rev. David Averypromptly gathered twenty men and marched toward Boston, recruitingadditional troops along the way, [54] and the Rev. Stephen Farrar ofNew Hampshire led 97 of his parishioners to Boston. [55] The ranks ofresistance to the British swelled through the efforts of Christianministers who "were far more effective than army recruiters inrounding up citizen-soldiers." [56]

 

Weeks later when the Americans fought the British at BunkerHill, American ministers again delved headlong into the fray. Forexample, when the Rev. David Grosvenor heard that the battle hadcommenced, he left from his pulpit - rifle in hand - and promptlymarched to the scene of action, [57] as did the Rev. Jonathan French.[58]

 

This pattern was common through the Revolution - as when theRev. Thomas Reed marched to the defense of Philadelphia againstBritish General Howe; [59] the Rev. John Steele led Americanforces in attacking the British; [60] the Rev. Isaac Lewis helped leadthe resistance to the British landing at Norwalk, Connecticut; [61] the Rev.Joseph Willard raised two full companies and then marched with themto battle; [62]the Rev. James Latta, when many of his parishioners were drafted,joined with them as a common soldier; [63] and the Rev. William Grahamjoined the military as a rifleman in order to encourage others inhis parish to do the same [64]. Furthermore:

Of Rev. John Craighead it is said that "he fought andpreached alternately." Rev. Dr. Cooper was captain of a militarycompany. Rev. John Blair Smith, president of Hampden-SidneyCollege, was captain of a company that rallied to support theretreating Americans after the battle of Cowpens. Rev. James Hallcommanded a company that armed against Cornwallis. Rev. WilliamGraham rallied his own neighbors to dispute the passage of RockfishGap with Tarleton and his British dragoons. [65]

There are many additional examples. No wonder the British dubbedthe patriotic American clergy the "Black Regiment." [66] But because oftheir strong leadership, ministers were often targeted by theBritish. As Headley confirms:

[T]here was a class of clergymen and chaplains in theRevolution whom the British, when they once laid hands on them,treated with the most barbarous severity. Dreading them for theinfluence they wielded and hating them for the obstinacy, courage,and enthusiasm they infused into the rebels, they violated all theusages of war among civilized nations in order to inflictpunishment upon them. [67]

Among these was the Rev. Naphtali Daggett, President of Yale.When the British approached New Haven to enter private homes anddesecrate property and belongings, Daggett offered stiff and attimes almost single-handed resistance to the British invasion,standing alone on a hillside, repeatedly firing his rifle down atthe hundreds of British troops below. Eventually captured, over aperiod of several hours the British stabbed and pricked Daggettmultiple times with their bayonets. Local townspeople lobbied theBritish and eventually secured the release of the preacher, butDaggett never recovered from those wounds, which eventually causedhis death. [68]When the Rev. James Caldwell offered similar resistance in NewJersey, the British burned his church and he and his family weremurdered. [69]

 

The British abused, killed, or imprisoned many other clergymen,[70] who oftensuffered harsher treatment and more severe penalties than didordinary imprisoned soldiers. [71] But the British targeted not justministers but also their churches. As a result, of the nineteenchurch buildings in New York City, ten were destroyed by theBritish, [72]and most of the churches in Virginia suffered the same fate. [73] This patternwas repeated throughout many other parts of the country.

 

Truly, Christian ministers provided courageous leadershipthroughout the Revolution, and as briefly noted earlier, they hadalso been largely responsible for laying its intellectualfoundation. To understand more of their influence, consider theRev. John Wise.

 

As early as 1687, the Rev. Wise was already teaching that"taxation without representation is tyranny," [74] the "consent of the governed" wasthe foundation of government, [75] and that "every man must beacknowledged equal to every man." [76] In 1772 with the Revolution onthe horizon, two of Wise's works were reprinted by leading patriotsand the Sons of Liberty to refresh America's understanding of thecore Biblical principles of government. [77] (The first printing sold so fastthat a quick second reprint was quickly issued. [78]) Significantly, many of thespecific points made by Wise in that work subsequently appearedfour years later in the very language of the Declaration ofIndependence. As historian Benjamin Morris affirmed in 1864:

[S]ome of the most glittering sentences in the immortalDeclaration of Independence are almost literal quotations from this[1772 reprinted] essay of John Wise. . . . It was used as apolitical text-book in the great struggle for freedom. [79]

And decades later when President Calvin Coolidge delivered a1926 speech in Philadelphia on the 150th anniversary ofthe Declaration of Independence, he similarly acknowledged:

The thoughts [in the Declaration] can very largely betraced back to what John Wise was writing in 1710. [80]

It was Christian ministers such as John Wise (and scores likehim) who, through their writings and countless sermons (such astheir Election Sermons and other sermons on the Biblical principlesof government) laid the intellectual basis for AmericanIndependence.

Christian clergy largely defined America's unique politicaltheory and even defended it in military combat, but they were alsoleaders in the national legislative councils in order to helpimplement what they had conceived and birthed. For example, theRev. Dr. John Witherspoon was a member of the Continental Congresswho served during the Revolution on the Board of War as well as onover 100 congressional committees. [81] Other ministers who served in theContinental Congress included the Revs. Joseph Montgomery, HughWilliamson, John Zubly, and more.

 

Numerous ministers also served in state legislatures - such asthe Rev. Jacob Green of New Jersey, who helped set aside theBritish government in that state and was made chairman of thecommittee that drafted the state's original constitution in 1776;[82] the Rev.Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, who helped draft Pennsylvania's 1776constitution; [83] the Rev. Samuel Stillman, whohelped draft Massachusetts' 1780 constitution; [84] etc.

 

When hostilities ceased at the end of the Revolution, Christianministers led in the movement for a federal constitution. Forexample, the Revs. Jeremy Belknap, Samuel Stanhope Smith, JohnWitherspoon, and James Manning began pointing out the defects ofthe Articles of Confederation, [85] and when the Constitution wasfinally complete and submitted to the states for ratification,nearly four dozen clergymen were elected as ratifying delegates, [86] many of whomplayed key roles in securing its adoption in their respectivestates.

 

Following the adoption of the new federal Constitution,ministers were highly active in celebrating its ratification. Forexample, of the parade in Philadelphia, signer of the DeclarationBenjamin Rush happily reported:

The clergy formed a very agreeable part of theprocession. They manifested by their attendance their sense of theconnection between religion and good government. They. . . .marched arm in arm with each other to exemplify the Union. [87]

When the first federal Congress under the new Constitutionconvened, several ministers were Members, including the Revs.Frederick Augustus and John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, Abiel Foster,Benjamin Contee, Abraham Baldwin, and Paine Wingate.

 

Ministers were intimately involved in every aspect ofintroducing, defining, and securing America's civil and religiousliberties. A 1789 Washington, D. C., newspaper therefore proudlyreported:

[O]ur truly patriotic clergy boldly and zealouslystepped forth and bravely stood our distinguished sentinels towatch and warn us against approaching danger; they wisely saw thatour religious and civil liberties were inseparably connected andtherefore warmly excited and animated the people resolutely tooppose and repel every hostile invader. . . . [M]ay the virtue,zeal and patriotism of our clergy be ever particularly remembered.[88]

Incidentally, besides their contributions to government andcivil and religious liberty, the Black Robed Regiment was alsolargely responsible for education in America. Ministers,understanding that only a literate people well versed in theteachings of the Bible could sustain free and enlightenedgovernment, therefore established an education system that wouldteach and preserve the religious principles so indispensable to thecivil and religious liberties they forcefully advocated.

 

Consequently, in 1635 the Puritans established America's firstpublic school, [89] and in 1647 passed America' firstpublic education law ("The Old Deluder Satan Act" [90]). And HarvardUniversity was founded through the direction of Puritan ministerJohn Harvard; [91] Yale was founded by tencongregational ministers; [92] Princeton by Presbyterianministers Jonathan Dickinson, John Pierson, and Ebenezer Pemberton;[93] William andMary by Episcopal minister James Blair; [94] Dartmouth by Congregationalminister Eleazar Wheelock; [95] etc.

 

This trend of Gospel ministers founding and leading Americaneducational institutions continued for the next two-and-a-halfcenturies, and by 1860, ninety-one percent of all collegepresidents were ministers of the Gospel - as were more than a thirdof all university faculty members. [96] Of the 246 colleges founded bythe close of that year, only seventeen were not affiliated withsome denomination; [97] and by 1884, eighty-three percentof America's 370 colleges still remained denominational colleges.[98] As FoundingFather Noah Webster (the "Schoolmaster to America") affirmed, "tothem [the clergy] is popular education in this country moreindebted than to any other class of men." [99]

 

In short, history demonstrates that America's electivegovernments, her educational system, and many other positiveaspects of American life and culture were the product ofBiblical-thinking Christian clergy and leaders. Today, however, asthe influence of the clergy has waned, many of these institutionshave come under unprecedented attack and many of our traditionalfreedoms have been significantly eroded. It is time for America'sclergy to understand and reclaim the important position ofinfluence they have been given. As the Rev. Charles Finney - aleader of the Second Great Awakening - reminded ministers in hisday:

Brethren, our preaching will bear its legitimatefruits. If immorality prevails in the land, the fault is ours in agreat degree. If there is a decay of conscience, the pulpit isresponsible for it. If the public press lacks moral discrimination,the pulpit is responsible for it. If the church is degenerate andworldly, the pulpit is responsible for it. If the world loses itsinterest in religion, the pulpit is responsible for it. If Satanrules in our halls of legislation, the pulpit is responsible forit. If our politics become so corrupt that the very foundations ofour government are ready to fall away, the pulpit is responsiblefor it. Let us not ignore this fact, my dear brethren; but let uslay it to heart, and be thoroughly awake to our responsibility inrespect to the morals of this nation. [100]

America once again needs the type of courageous ministersdescribed by Bishop Galloway:

Mighty men they were, of iron nerve and strong hand andunblanched cheek and heart of flame. God needed not reeds shaken bythe wind, not men clothed in soft raiment [Matthew 11:7-8], butheroes of hardihood and lofty courage. . . .And such were the sonsof the mighty who responded to the Divine call. [101]

It is time to reinvigorate the Black Robed Regiment!

 

To view the video clip by David Barton click on the icon below:

Black Robed Regiment



[1]Boston Gazette, December 7, 1772, article by "Israelite,"and Boston Weekly Newsletter, January 11, 1776, article byPeter Oliver, British official. See also Peter Oliver,Peter Oliver's Origin & Progress of the AmericanRebellion, Douglas Adair and John A. Schutz, editors (SanMarino California: The Huntington Library, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45;Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, The NewEngland Clergy and the American Revolution (New York:Frederick Ungar, 1958), pp. 98, 155.

[2] AlpheusPackard, "Nationality," Bibliotheca Sacra and AmericanBiblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper, 1856),Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin FranklinMorris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutionsof the United States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864),pp. 334-335.

[3] Alice M.Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 170.

[4] John Adams,The Works of John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor(Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851), Vol. III, p.476, "The Earl of Clarendon to William Pym," January 20, 1766.

[5] John Adams,The Works of John Adams, Charles Francis Adams, editor(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1850), Vol. X, p. 284, toHezekiah Niles, February 13, 1818. See also JohnAdams, The Works of John  Adams, Charles FrancisAdams, editor (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1856), Vol. X, pp.271-272, letter to William Wirt, January 5, 1818.

[6] "History ofRevivals of Religion, From the Settlement of the Country to thePresent Time," The American Quarterly Register, (Boston:Perkins and Marvin, 1833) Vol. 5, p. 217. See alsoBenjamin Franklin Morris, Christian Life and Character of theCivil Institutions of the United States (Philadelphia: GeorgeW. Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[7] AlpheusPackard, "Nationality," Bibliotheca Sacra and AmericanBiblical Repository (London: Andover: Warren F. Draper, 1856),Vol. XIII p.193, Article VI. See also Benjamin FranklinMorris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutionsof the United States (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864),pp. 334-335.

[8] BenjaminFranklin Morris, Christian Life and Character of the CivilInstitutions of the United States (Philadelphia: George W.Childs, 1864), pp. 334-335.

[9] Alice M.Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1958),p. 134.

[10] ClintonRossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt,Brace and Co., 1953), pp. 328-329.

[11] Charles B.Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898),p. 77.

[12] ColonialNational Historical Park, "The First Legislative Assembly atJamestown, Virginia," National Park Service (at:http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/1stASSLY.html) (accessedon September 24, 2010).

[13] Charles B.Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898),pp. 1131-114; John Fiske, Civil Government in the United StatesConsidered with some Reference to Its Origins (Boston:Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1890), p. 146.

[14] Charles B.Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898),p. 114.

[15] OldSouth Leaflets, (Boston: Directors of the Old South Work), p.372, "Words of John Robinson (1620)"; "John Robinson's FarewellLetter to the Pilgrims, July 22, 1620," Pilgrim HallMuseum,  July 22, 1620 (at:http://www.pilgrimhall.org/RobinsonLetter.htm).

[16] "PlymouthColony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html)(accessed on September 24, 2010). See also Robert Baird,Religion in America (New York: Harper & Brothers,1845), p. 51.

[17] "PlymouthColony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html)(accessed on September 24, 2010).

[18] HenryWilliam Elson, History of the United States of America,(New York: The MacMillan Company, 1904), Ch. IV, pp. 103-111.See also "Massachusetts Bay," History of the USA(at: http://www.usahistory.info/New-England/Massachusetts.html)(accessed on September 30, 2010).

[19] "PlymouthColony Legal Structure," Plymouth Colony Archive Project(at: http://etext.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/ccflaw.html)(accessed on September 30, 2010).

[20] GeorgeBancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery ofthe American Continent (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.,1858), Vol. I, p. 416-417; Charles B. Galloway, Christianityand the American Commonwealth (Nashville, TN: Publishing HouseMethodist Episcopal Church, 1898), pp. 124-125; Old SouthLeaflets, (Boston: Directors ofthe Old South Work), p. 261-280, "The Body of Liberties: TheLiberties of the Massachusetts Colonie in New England,1641."

[21] "Charter ofRhode Island and Providence Plantations," The AvalonProject, July 15, 1663 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp).

[22] Alice M.Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 27 quotingRoger Williams' The Bloody Tenet, p. 137, quoted by IsaacBackus, Church History of New England, I. 62 of 1839.

[23] "Connecticutto 1763," Connecticut's Heritage Gateway (at:http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/ctto1763/overviewctto1763.htm)(accessed on September 30, 2010).

[24] TheFederal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and OtherOrganic Laws, Francis Newton Thorpe, editor (Washington:Government Printing Office, 1909), Vol. 1, p. 534, "Charter ofConnecticut-1662."

[25] ClintonRossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt,Brace and Co., 1953), p. 171.

[26] John Fiske,The Beginnings of New England (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin& Co., 1898), pp. 127-128.

[27] ClintonRossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt,Brace and Co., 1953), p. 32. See also, J. M. Mathews,The Bible and Civil Government, in a Course of Lectures(New York: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1851), pp. 67-68.

[28] "Province ofWest New Jersey in America," Art. I, The Avalon Project,November 25, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj08.asp); "The FundamentalConstitutions for the Province of East New Jersey in America, AnnoDomini 1683," Art. II-III, The Avalon Project, 1683 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nj10.asp). Seealso "Colonial America," United States History (at:http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h591.html) (accessed on September23, 2010).

[29] ErnestSutherland Bates, American Faith (New York: W. W. Norton& Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[30] ErnestSutherland Bates, American Faith (New York: W. W. Norton& Company Inc., 1940), pp. 186-187.

[31]"Charter for the Province of Pennsylvannia-1681," The Avalon Project, February 28, 1681 (at:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/pa01.asp).

[32] Noah Webster, Letters of NoahWebster, Harry R. Warfel, editor (New York: LibraryPublishers, 1953, p. 455, letter to David McClure, October 25,1836.

[33] DanielWebster, Address Delivered at Bunker Hill, June 17, 1843, onthe Completion of the Monument (Boston: T. R. Marvin, 1843),p. 31.

[34] John Fiske,The Beginnings of New England (Boston and New York:Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1898), pp. 267-272.

[35] John Wise,A Vindication of the Government of New- England Churches(Boston: John Boyles, 1772), p. 45.

[36] "TopIpswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[37] John Fiske,Old Virginia and Her Neighbors (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin,and Company, 1901), Vol. II, p. 57, and Vol. I, pp. 306, 311.

[38]Dictionary of American Biography (New York: CharlesScribner's Sons, 1930), s.v. "Samuel Cooper."

[39] Alice M.Baldwin, The New England Clergy and the AmericanRevolution (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1958), p. 90; StephenMansfield, Forgotten Founding Father: The Heroic Legacy ofGeorge Whitefield (Cumberland House, 2001), p. 112.

[40] StephenMansfield, Forgotten Founding Father: The Heroic Legacy ofGeorge Whitefield (Cumberland House, 2001), p. 112.

[41] Alice M.Baldwin, The Clergy of Connecticut in Revolutionary Days(Yale University Press, 1936), p. 30.

[42] Claude H.Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), p. 362.

[43] John WingateThornton, Pulpit of the American Revolution (Boston: Gouldand Lincoln, 1860), pp. 147-148. See also Claude H. VanTyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), p. 362.

[44] GeorgeBancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery ofthe American Continent (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.,1858), Vol. V, p. 193.

[45] B.F. Morris,Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals ofthe Republic (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), pp.367-368.

[46] BenjaminLossing, Pictorial Fieldbook of the Revolution (New York:Harper & Brothers, 1851), Vol. I, p. 440.

[47] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 34. Only source we can locate is Cole's.

[48] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 79.

[49] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 79-82

[50] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Scribner, 1864), p. 82.

[51] James L.Adams, Yankee Doodle Went to Church: The Righteous Revolutionof 1776 (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1989), p.22.

[52] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[53] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[54] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[55] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[56] James L.Adams, Yankee Doodle Went to Church (Old Tappan, NJ:Fleming H. Revell Company, 1989), p. 153.

[57] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[58] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[59] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 68.

[60] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69; Appleton's Cyclopedia ofAmerican Biography, s.v. "John Steele."

[61] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), pp. 71-72.

[62] FranklinCole, They Preached Liberty (New York: Fleming H. Revell,1941), p. 36.

[63] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 72.

[64] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 69.

[65] DanielDorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips &Hunt, 1888), p. 265.

[66] BostonGazette, December 7, 1772, article by "Israelite," andBoston Weekly Newsletter, January 11, 1776, article byPeter Oliver, British official. See also Peter Oliver,Peter Oliver's Origin & Progress of the AmericanRebellion, Douglas Adair and John A. Schutz, editors (SanMarino California: The Huntington Library, 1961), pp. 29, 41-45;Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre (New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 1962), p. 334; and Alice M. Baldwin, The NewEngland Clergy and the American Revolution (New York:Frederick Ungar, 1958), pp. 98, 155.

[67] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[68] WilliamBuell Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit: TrinitarianCongregation, (New York: Robert Carter & Brothers, 1857),p. 482.

[69] B.F. Morris,Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of theUnited States, Developed in the Official and Historical Annals ofthe Republic (Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864) p.350.

[70] DanielDorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips &Hunt, 1888), p. 265.

[71] J. T.Headley, The Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution (NewYork: Charles Scribner, 1864), p. 58.

[72] DanielDorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips &Hunt, 1888), p. 266.

[73] DanielDorchester, Christianity in the United States from the FirstSettlement Down to the Present Time (New York: Phillips &Hunt, 1888), p. 267.

[74] LindaStewart, "The Other Cape," American Heritage (at:http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2001/2/2001_2_50.shtml)(accessed on September 24, 2010).

[75] ClintonRossiter, Seedtime of the Republic (New York: Harcourt,Brace and Co., 1953), p. 219.

[76] "TopIpswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[77] "TopIpswich Patriots by Thomas Franklin Waters & Mrs. EuniceWhitney Farley Felten," Lord Family Album, 1927 (at:http://www.bwlord.com/Ipswich/Waters/TwoPatriots/JohnWise.htm).

[78] Claude H.Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence (Bostonand New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922), Vol. I, p. 357.

[79] John Wise,A Vindication of the Government of New England Churches: andthe Churches' Quarrel Espoused (Boston: Congregational Boardof Publication, 1860), pp. xx-xxi, "Introductory Remarks" by Rev.J. S. Clark. See also B.F. Morris, Christian Life andCharacter of the Civil Institutions of the United States, Developedin the Official and Historical Annals of the Republic(Philadelphia: George W. Childs, 1864), p. 341

[80] CalvinCoolidge, "Speech on the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary ofthe Declaration of Independence," Teaching AmericanHistory, July 5, 1926 (at:http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=41).

[81]Political Sermons of the American Founding Era: 1730-1805,Ellis Sandoz, editor (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund: 1998), Vol. 1, p.530, from Sermons 17 on John Witherspoon intro.

[82] B.F. Morris,Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions ofthe United States, Developed in the Official andHistorical Annals of the Republic (Philadelphia: George W.Childs, 1864), p. 366.

[83] WilliamWarren Sweet, The Story of Religion in America (New York:Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1950), p. 182.

[84] Frank Moore,Patriot Preachers of the American Revolution (Boston:Gould and Lincoln: 1860), p. 260.

[85] JamesHutchinson Smylie, American Clergymen and the Constitution ofthe United States of America (New Jersey: PrincetonTheological Seminary, doctoral dissertation 1958), pp. 127-129,139, 143.

[86] JohnEidsmoe, Christianity and the Constitution (Grand Rapids,MI: Baker Books, 1987), p. 352, n. 15.

[87] BenjaminRush, Letters of Benjamin Rush, L. H. Butterfield, editor(Princeton: American Philosophical Society, 1951), Vol. I, p. 474,letter to Elias Boudinot, "Observations on the Federal Processionin Philadelphia," July 9, 1788.

[88] Gazetteof the United States (Washington, D.C.: May 9, 1789), p. 1,quoting from "Extract from "American Essays: The Importance of theProtestant Religion Politically Considered."

[89] "About BLS:History," Boston Latin School (at:http://www.bls.org/podium/default.aspx?t=113646&rc=0) (accessedon October 1, 2010)

[90]The Code of 1650, Being a Compilation of the Earliest Laws andOrders of the General Court of Connecticut (Hartford: SilusAndrus, 1822), pp. 90-92. See also Church of the HolyTrinity v. U. S., 143 U. S. 457, 467 (1892).

[91]Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography (NewYork: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), s.v. "John Harvard."

[92] NoahWebster, Letters to a Young Gentleman Commencing HisEducation (New Haven: Howe & Spalding, 1823), p. 237.

[93] JohnMaclean, History of the College of New Jersey, from its Originin 1746 to the Commencement of 1854 (Philadelphia: J.B.Lippincott & Co., 1877), Vol. I, p. 70.

[94] TheHistory of the College of William and Mary, from its Foundation,1660, to 1874 (Richmond, VA: J.W. Randolph & English,1874), p. 95.

[95] "DartmouthHistory," Dartmouth University (at:http://www.dartmouth.edu/home/about/history.html) (accessed onOctober 1, 2010).

[96] Warren A.Nord, Religion & American Education (North Carolina:The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p. 84, quoting fromJames Tunstead Burtchaell, "The Decline and Fall of the ChristianCollege I," First Things, May 1991, p. 24, and GeorgeMarsden, The Soul of the American University (New York:Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 11, and Charles B. Galloway,Christianity and the American Commonwealth (Nashville:Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 198.

[97] E. P.Cubberley, Public Education in the United States (Boston:Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1919), p. 204. See also Luther A.Weigle, The Pageant of America: American Idealism, RalphHenry Gabriel, editor (Yale University Press, 1928), Vol. X, p.315.

[98] Charles B.Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), pp.209-210.

[99] NoahWebster, A Collection of Papers on Political, Literary, andMoral Subjects (New York:Webster andClark, 1843), p. 293, from his "Reply to a Letter of DavidMcClure on the Subject of the Proper Course of Study in theGirard College, Philadelphia. New Haven, October 25,1836."

[100] The Christian Treasury ContainingContributions from Ministers and Members of Various EvangelicalDenominations (Edinburgh: Johnstone, Hunter and Co., 1877), p.203.

[101] CharlesB. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth(Nashville, TN: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898),p. 77.